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The Top Secret History of America’s Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare Programs and Their Deployment Overseas
At its peak in 1967, the U.S. nuclear arsenal consisted of 31,255 nuclear weapons with an aggregate destructive power of 12,786 megatons – more than sufficient to wipe out all of humanity several hundred times over. Much less known is that hidden away in earth-covered bunkers spread throughout the U.S., Europe and Japan, over 40,000 tons of American chemical weapons were stored, as well as thousands of specially designed bombs that could be filled with even deadlier biological warfare agents.

The American WMD programs remain cloaked in secrecy, yet a substantial number of revealing documents have been quietly declassified since the late 1970s. Put together, they tell the story of how America secretly built up the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. The documents explain the role these weapons played in a series of world crises, how they shaped U.S. and NATO defense and foreign policy during the Cold War, and what incidents and nearly averted disasters happened. Moreover, they shed a light on the dreadful human and ecological legacy left by decades of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons manufacturing and testing in the U.S. and overseas.

This collection contains more than 2,300 formerly classified U.S. government documents, most of them classified Top Secret or higher. Covering the period from the end of World War II to the present day, it provides unique access to previously unpublished reports, memoranda, cables, intelligence briefs, classified articles, PowerPoint presentations, military manuals and directives, and other declassified documents. Following years of archival research and careful selection, they were brought together from the U.S. National Archives, ten U.S. presidential libraries, the NATO Archives in Brussels, the National Archives of the UK, the National Archives of Canada, and the National Archives of the Netherlands. In addition, a sizeable number of documents in this collection were obtained from the U.S. government and the Pentagon using the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) requests.

This collection comes with several auxiliary aids, including a chronology and a historiographical essay with links to the documents themselves, providing context and allowing for easy navigation for both students and scholars.

Highlights:
• The papers in this collection detail how America’s stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were developed, the staggering costs that were involved, the network of laboratories where the bombs and their components were designed and developed, new details about the dozens of secret factories spread across the U.S. where these lethal bombs and warheads were built, the sites where they were tested, and even newly released information about some of the storage depots where the weapons were deployed in the U.S. and overseas.
• This collection contains for the first time ever a comprehensive set of declassified documents which quantify the size and destructive power of the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons stockpile throughout the Cold War era, including new details about the many different types of weapons in these arsenals, such as nuclear landmines (Atomic Demolition Munitions) and even a nuclear-capable recoilless rifle system.
• This collection contains hundreds of pages of declassified Defense Department and State Department documents concerning the secret negotiations between the U.S. government and over fifteen foreign governments concerning the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries (complete biological weapons were never deployed overseas), as well as the even more difficult task later in the Cold War of trying to get permission to remove these weapons after they had outlived their usefulness. In some instances, the U.S. government deliberately did not inform the host nations that they had deployed nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries, as in the case of Japan, which was shocked to learn in 1969 that the U.S. was storing large numbers of nuclear and chemical weapons on the island of Okinawa without their knowledge or consent.
• Also included are over a hundred declassified documents regarding U.S. nuclear war plans, detailing how the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were to be used in wartime, including lists of their targets inside the USSR and the People’s Republic of China; newly declassified documents containing the details of all known nuclear, chemical and biological weapons accidents, some of which produced fatal results; and incidents involving attempts by foreign governments (Greece, Turkey and South Korea) to pressure the U.S. government by threatening to seize American nuclear weapons stored on their soil. Finally, there are recently released files concerning an attempt by a terrorist group to penetrate a U.S. nuclear weapons storage site in West Germany.

Number of documents: 2,374
Number of pages: ca. 21,212

Auxiliary aids:
• Introductory essay
• Glossary of acronyms
• Chronology
• Bibliography
• MARC21 catalog records

Sourcing archives:
• U.S. National Archives, Legislative Archives Branch, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. National Archives. Military Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• U.S. National Archives, Civilian Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives, Brussels, Belgium
• National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
• National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands
• National Archives of the UK, Kew, Great Britain
• Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
• Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
• Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
• John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
• Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
• Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California
• Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
• Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia
• Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California
• George H.W. Bush Presidential Library, Houston, Texas
• William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas
• Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
• DOD FOIA Reading Room, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Army Center for Military History, Washington, D.C.
• Naval Historical Center Operational Archives, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
• Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
• Douglas MacArthur Library, Norfolk, Virginia (Douglas MacArthur Papers)
• George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (George C. Marshall Papers)
• Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (George W. Ball Papers)
• National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. (Chuck Hansen Collection)
• Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, Maryland

See also the companion collections Cold War Intelligence, U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991, U.S. Intelligence on Europe, 1945-1995, and U.S. Intelligence on the Middle East, 1945-2009.
Part 3: The Presidential Campaigns of 1989, 1994 and 1998
This third part of The Brazilian Workers’ Party microfilm collection, carefully assembled and organized, constitutes an essential source for researchers interested in contemporary Latin American politics. It comprises the official documents produced by Brazil´s current President Luís Inácio ‘Lula’ da Silva’s electoral campaigns of 1989, 1994 and 1998.
Part 2
Part 2 of the collection is comprised of the PT National Secretariat press clipping collection documenting the years 1984 to 1998. It offers privileged access to the Brazilian press coverage of the most important economic, social and political events during this fifteen-year period of democratic transition in Brazil. 1984 was marked by the unsuccessful campaign for direct presidential elections, which nonetheless contributed to the indirect election of the first civilian president of the country in 1985. By 1998 the Workers Party’s founder, Lula, was running his third presidential race. The clipping collection shows the ways in which this complex evolution was followed at party headquarters and provides an important complement to the material included in Part 1 (the Party press organs from 1980 to 2002 and the clipping collection from 1980 to 1984).

Part 3
The total collection consists of three parts. The third and final part documents the various Lula campaigns for the Presidency of the Republic and will become available in 2009.

Alexandre Fortes, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian Workers' Party
Part 1: PT Publications 1980-2002 and Newspaper Clippings 1980-1984

This collection
Perhaps the PT's development and presentation of various innovative approaches and instruments to confront the nation's major economic and social challenges explains both its successes and the peak in (international) attention.

This set focuses on the PT national periodicals and single-issued publications and clipping collection, besides other items such as the party first book of acts. After extensive research, all printed and electronic publications issued by the party National Board and Secretariat - with only small gaps related to missing issues - were assembled and microfilmed.

Those publications, up to that moment, had been scattered. In most cases many incomplete collections could be found in diverse locations and others were only available in digital form. The clipping collection provides a very useful tool for researchers interested not just in an important set of news related to different moments of PT life but also in understanding the ways in which the party itself was analyzing each specific political conjuncture from its origins to 1984.

Fundação Perseu Abramo
Up to 1997, all PT's documentation was kept in boxes without identification, in terrible conditions of organization in a basement of the National Directory in São Paulo. Since 1997/98, with the creation of the Projeto Memória & História of the Fundação Perseu Abramo (FPA), this documentation received a special care.

FPA is a foundation of the PT that organizes debate, research and publication. Through its Projeto Memória & História, the Foundation has established a historical documentation center: Centro Sérgio Buarque de Holanda - Documentação e Memória Política. Here, the PT's historical archives and publications are stored, maintained and managed. The Fondação Perseu Abramo applied successfully for external funding to describe and catalog the archive and publications, and have the materials preserved on microfilm. A grant was awarded by the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard.

Historical documentation
The historical documentation of the PT also starts to be integrated with the most important centers of reference (nationally and internationally) specialized in the history of the Left, such as: São Paulo's State Archive, Archive Edgar Leuenroth at Unicamp, Harvard University Library and the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam.

Exclusive distributor
The Fondação Perseu Abramo is working with IDC Publishers, of the Netherlands, to make the microfilms available for distribution to librarians and researchers. IDC Publishers us the exclusive distributor for microfilms, produced by the program. This set-up will continue for the duration of the program.

Still in 2004, the microfilming of newspaper's clipping and the periodicals regarding the trends of the party as "In Time", "The Work", among others will be concluded. The expectation is to have about 80 more rolls, reaching roughly 150,000 microfilmed pages in 2005.
Spider Trickster Tales from Jamaica
Spider Trickster Tales from Jamaica: The Anansi Folk Tales Collection
From the John J. Burns Library of Rare Books and Special Collections, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

On 35mm microfilm

According to Robert Hill, Professor of History & Editor-in-Chief of The Marcus Garvey & UNIA Papers at UCLA, these Anansi tales are the single most important collection of original folktales from the Caribbean in existence for facilitating research and teaching in the area of cultural studies of the African Diaspora, popular culture, and ethnomusicology.

The collection
The collection consists of nearly 5,000 handwritten stories, each with a typed transcript, giving variants of about 200 basic trickster tales. The texts were written in Creole by 1,124 school children from 97 primary schools (both public and private, including various religious denominations) in Jamaica in 1930-1931 in response to a contest organized by the Jesuit missionary and ethnologist Joseph John Williams to collect material on the oral tradition of tales concerning the spider "Anansi" (usually written "Anancy" in Jamaica) and/or other animal and human figures. It is the largest manuscript collection of Anansi folk tales in existence.
The original manuscripts are contained in school "bluebooks" per student. The penmanship is usually quite good and the stories are easily legible. Many are illustrated with drawings made by the children and include music and the lyrics of songs. The transcripts are typewritten one to a single sheet and interleaved with the relevant stories. The collection has been microfilmed in its entirety.

Trickster tales
Trickster tales concerning animal or human protagonists are a well-known feature of oral traditions worldwide. The trickster is often an animal, but can also be a human figure and is thought to possess special powers. The tales combine elements of violence, deception and magic and the hero is variously perceived to be godlike or a fool, a destructive villain or an innocent prankster. The tales may be grouped in cycles and serve both ritualistic and entertainment purposes. Various trickster protagonists are the coyote among Native Americans of the west and the African trickster hare, who became "Brer Rabbit" in the US southeast. The spider trickster of the peoples of West Africa, "Anansi", was transmitted to the Caribbean by slaves brought over in the colonial period, especially to Jamaica, where he is known as "Anancy" or "Brea Nancy".

The collector
Joseph John Williams, S.J. (1875-1940) was a prominent ethnologist with a strong interest in religious beliefs and psychic phenomena in Jamaica and their links to West African culture. He first visited Jamaica in 1907 and served as a missionary there in the period 1912-1917 becoming closely acquainted with the African-Jamaican population of the island's central and western "parishes" (districts) and their folklore and customs. His first book, Whisperings of the Caribbean (1925), contains recollections of his experiences there. He went on to publish major studies of West Indian religious culture, including Voodoos and Obeahs (1932) and Psychic Phenomena of Jamaica (1934). Starting in 1932 he lectured in cultural anthropology at Boston College, where he established a very extensive collection of mostly printed materials on Africa and the Caribbean, named in honor of his father Nicholas M. Williams. The Anansi manuscripts form part of this collection. They were gathered with the cooperation of the Jamaican Director of Education, who distributed Williams's circular calling for contributions to his contest to schools all over the island.

Importance for research
Such a body of material forms a unique resource for research, but until today the collection is not as widely known as it should be. Covering the whole island as it does with contributions from children from varied religious and social backgrounds, who would have heard these stories at home from parents and grandparents or in other cultural contexts, it provides a truly remarkable snapshot of Jamaica's oral traditions at a moment when they were still very much alive. It is fortunate indeed that these stories were captured and preserved thanks to Williams's initiative. Now their publication on microfilm will make them more easily accessible to scholars working in various fields, including Caribbean studies, African and African-American studies, ethnology, folklore, and linguistics.
British Union Catalogue of Latin Americana (BUCLA)
British holdings

The union catalogue contains references to books, periodicals, pamphlets, newspapers, government publications, and theses, as well as microform and audio-visual material about Latin America, published anywhere in the world, and material published in Latin America on any subject. The material referenced is held in British Libraries.

This collection is also included in the British Union Catalogue of Latin Americana (BUCLA) collection.
British Union Catalogue of Latin Americana (BUCLA)
British holdings

The union catalogue contains references to books, periodicals, pamphlets, newspapers, government publications, and theses, as well as microform and audio-visual material about Latin America, published anywhere in the world, and material published in Latin America on any subject. The material referenced is held in Library of Congress.

This collection is also included in the British Union Catalogue of Latin Americana (BUCLA) collection.
Colección de Documentos para la Historia de la Oposición Política al Estado Autoritario en Chile (1973-1981)

The collection consists of 3 volumes of documents from the political opposition to the authoritarian state in Chile, covering the period 1973-1981. Previously they were only available in mimeo form as international reports. Only small fragments of a few have been published for a wider public.
Comintern Archives: Files of the Communist Party of Mexico

The Comintern archives: Top secret
The Communist, or Third, International (Comintern) and its archives, kept hidden away for many years, have been shrouded in rumor, conjecture, and myth. Its influence was heavily felt even in countries where it could only operate in semi- or total illegality, through secretive activities, yet it is impossible to write twentieth-century history without these archives. The archives, which are held in the Russian State Archive of Social and Political History in Moscow, contain 55 million pages of original documents in almost 90 languages covering the entire period during which the organization was active (1919-1943). However, access to this indispensable source of information – 15 linear kilometers of shelving classified as "top secret" – was virtually impossible for many years. In 1992, the archives were opened up to the public, but were still difficult to access, due to their vastness and complexity.

Communist Party of Mexico
The Comintern ruled over the international Communist movement through its 70 partner organizations in Europe, Asia, America, and Africa, and deeply influenced the political life of many countries worldwide. In the 1920s, Mexico became subject to the steadfast attention of the Comintern. The CPM was considered to be an advanced post of the struggle against American imperialism. The Pan-American Bureau was created in Mexico as the Comintern’s regional body to coordinate the communistic movement in Latin America and the continental committee of the Anti-Imperialist League.

Unique Collection
The files of the Communist Party of Mexico ( fond 495, opis' 108) cover the period 1919-1940 and include extensive documentation of relations between the Comintern and its counterparts in Mexico and other countries in Latin America. Among the documents of the CPM, the most informative are letters, reports, and reports to the Executive Committee of the Comintern concerning workers’ and communist movements, the creation of the Popular Front, financing the work of the party, the presidential elections, and the activities of the churches in Mexico. Many documents in these collections are unique, for instance, the documents on two muralists – Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Sikejros (Siqueiros) – and correspondence between Sikejros and Secretary General of Profintern, A. Lozovskii. The collection also includes rare periodicals and newspapers, and many valuable photos. Until 1992, access to the documents of Communist parties was extremely limited; for example, researchers were allowed access only to printed materials, individual resolutions, and reports on the performance of CP delegates at the congresses of the Comintern.

The collection contains:
• Relations between the Comintern and its counterparts in Latin America, North America, and Europe;
• Material of the Caribbean Bureau, the Latin American Bureau, and the Pan-American Bureau;
• History of the Communist Party of Mexico and that of the USA;
• Correspondence with the Communist Party of the USA;
• Labor history, trade unions, and youth organization in Mexico;
• Pamphlets, ephemera, leaflets;
• Collection of rare periodicals and newspapers: Bandera Roja, Vida Nueva, La Voz del Campesino, El Machete, and Nuestros ideales.
Early Printed Books on Religion from Colonial Spanish America (1543/4 - c.1800)
Holdings of the British Library
Printing in colonial Spanish America began early. During the colonial period, the publishing output in Spanish America was dominated by doctrinal and devotional works, confessionals, hymnals and saints’ lives. The British Library collection comprises more than 400 works from this period, the majority of which are from Mexico and Peru. Other copies of the original editions exist only in rare book libraries, which makes this collection hard to parallel in any other library in the world. This important resource is now available to scholars with interests in Spain, Spanish colonial history, Latin America, religion, and church history. The edition will also appeal to those who study or collect sources in Native American languages.

This collection is also included in the Early Printed Books on Religion from Colonial Spanish America (1543/4 - c.1800) collection.