The terminology in medieval Hebrew medical literature (original works and translations) has been sorely neglected by modern research. Medical terminology is virtually missing from the standard dictionaries of the Hebrew language, including
Ha-Millon he-ḥadash, composed by Abraham Even-Shoshan. Ben-Yehuda’s dictionary is the only one that contains a significant number of medical terms. Unfortunately, Ben-Yehuda’s use of the medieval medical texts listed in the dictionary’s introduction is inconsistent at best. The only dictionary exclusively devoted to medical terms, both medieval and modern, is that by A.M. Masie, entitled
Dictionary of Medicine and Allied Sciences. However, like the dictionary by Ben-Yehuda, it only makes occasional use of the sources registered in the introduction and only rarely differentiates between the various medieval translators. Further, since Masie’s work is alphabetized according to the Latin or English term, it cannot be consulted for Hebrew terms.
The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, which is currently being created by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, has not been taken into account consistently as it is not a dictionary in the proper sense of the word. Moreover, consultation of this resource suggests that it is generally deficient in medieval medical terminology.
The Bar Ilan Responsa Project has also been excluded as a source, despite the fact that it contains a larger number of medieval medical terms than the
Historical Dictionary. The present dictionary has two major objectives: 1) to map the medical terminology featured in medieval Hebrew medical works, in order to facilitate study of medical terms, especially those terms that do not appear in the existing dictionaries, and terms that are inadequately represented. 2) to identify the medical terminology used by specific authors and translators, to enable the identification of anonymous medical material.
This volume is part of a wider project aiming at mapping the technical medical terminology as it features in medieval Hebrew medical works, especially those terms that do not feature in the current dictionaries at all, or insufficiently. In this way the author hopes to facilitate the consultation of these and other medical works and the identification of anonymous medical material. The terminology discussed in this volume has been derived from three primary and seven secondary sources. The primary sources are: (1)
Sefer Ṣedat ha-Derakhim – Moses Ibn Tibbon’s translation of Ibn al-Jazzār’s
Zād al-musāfir, bks. 1–2; (2)
Sefer ha-Shimmush – Shem Tov Ben Isaac’s Hebrew translation of al-Zahrāwī’s
Kitāb al-taṣrīf; (3)
Sefer ha-Qanun – Nathan ha-Meʾati’s Hebrew translation of the first book of Ibn Sīnā’s
The Arabic-Ethiopic Glossary by al-Malik al-Afḍal by Maria Bulakh and Leonid Kogan is a detailed annotated edition of a unique monument of Late Medieval Arabic lexicography, comprising 475 Arabic lexemes (some of them post-classical Yemeni dialectisms) translated into several Ethiopian idioms and put down in Arabic letters in a late-fourteenth century manuscript from a codex in a private Yemeni collection. For the many languages involved, the Glossary provides the earliest written records, by several centuries pre-dating the most ancient attestations known so far. The edition, preceded by a comprehensive linguistic introduction, gives a full account of the comparative material from all known Ethiopian Semitic languages. A detailed index ensures the reader’s orientation in the lexical treasures revealed from the Glossary.
As with any dictionary of a newly discovered dead language, the aim of this Dictionary of the Ugaritic alphabetic texts is to indicate the stage reached in its lexical description and to serve as a reference work for further study. In this connection, the main interpretative opinions have been included, since to a large extent Ugaritic lexicography remains uncertain. Also the most relevant comparative Semitic material has been provided in order to corroborate the lexical choices adopted by the authors and help readers to verify their own. The new material discovered since 1992 and recently published has also been included, along with all the personal and topographical names as in the two previous editions.
The Qurʾan is the living source of all Islamic teaching, and is of singular importance to those interested in Islam and the study of religions. Despite this, there exists a long-felt lack of research tools for English first-language speakers who wish to access the Qurʾan in the original Arabic.
Dictionary of Qurʾanic Usage is the first comprehensive, fully-researched and contextualised Arabic-English dictionary of Qurʾanic usage, compiled in accordance with modern lexicographical methods by scholars who have a lifelong immersion in Qurʾanic Studies. Based on Classical Arabic dictionaries and Qurʾan commentaries, this work also emphasises the role of context in determining the meaning-scatter of each vocabulary item. Illustrative examples from Qurʾanic verses are provided in support of the definitions given for each context in which a particular word occurs, with cross-references to other usages. Frequently occurring grammatical particles are likewise thoroughly explained, insofar as they are used in conveying various nuances of meaning in the text.
This is the third and final volume of the
Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. It comprises the Egyptian words with initial m-. The amount of material offered, the extensive treatment of scholarly discussions on each item, and the insights into the connections of Egyptian and the related Afro-Asiatic (Semito-Hamitic) languages, including many new lexical parallels, will make it an indispensable tool for comparative purposes and an unchallenged starting point for every linguist in the field.
The reader will find the etymological entries even more detailed than those of the introductory volume, due to the full retrospective presentation of all etymologies proposed since A. Erman's time, and thanks to an extremely detailed discussion of all possible relevant data even on the less known Afro-Asiatic cognates to the Egyptian roots.
This glossary is an up-to-date research tool for the study of population in English, Japanese and German. Based on the technical literature, encyclopedias, databases and existing glossaries in the three languages listed as well as other relevant languages in which demographic research is carried out, it comprises more than 7500 technical terms accessible in three directions: English-Japanese-German, Japanese-English-German and German-Japanese-English.
Scientific fields covered include social demography, population geography, political demography, economic demography, historical demography, medical demography, biodemography, mathematical demography, as well as some adjacent fields such as psychology, law, technology, religion, linguistics and education.
Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary, a project in the making since 1986, is the first dictionary to reflect the vocabulary of the extinct Proto-Hamito-Semitic (Proto-Afro-Asiatic) language. Reconstructed on the basis of Semitic, Ancient Egyptian, Berber, Chadic and Cushitic linguistic groups, the Dictionary plays an indispensable role in further research into the field of historical linguistics. It surpasses by far the only comparable work to date, M. Cohen's
Essai comparatif sur le vocabulaire et la phonetique du chamito-semitique, published in 1947, which contains much less material and is now outdated.
The Dictionary comprises more than 2,500 lexical items and includes an introduction providing valuable information on the historical phonology of Hamito-Semitic as well as an index of meanings, which supplies linguistics, archaeologists and scholars of ancient history with added insight into the culture of the ancient speakers of Proto-Hamito-Semitic. An invaluable contribution to the field of Afro-Asiatic Studies,
The Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary will be used and discussed by scholars for years to come.