Hippocrates’ Aphorisms enjoyed great popularity in the ancient and medieval world and, according to Maimonides, it was Hippocrates’ most useful work as it contained aphorisms, which every physician should know by heart. They were translated into Hebrew several times, but it was Maimonides’ Commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms that made the work influential in Jewish circles. For the composition of his commentary, Maimonides consulted the Aphorisms through the commentary by Galen, translated by Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq. This edition of Maimonides’ Arabic commentary and its Hebrew translations, the first with an English translation based on the Arabic text, is part of a project undertaken by Gerrit Bos to critically edit Maimonides’ medical works.
A Critical Hebrew-Arabic Edition of the Surviving Textual Evidence, with an Introduction, Preliminary Studies, and a Commentary
Themistius’ (4th century CE) paraphrase of Aristotle’s Metaphysics 12 is the earliest surviving complete account of this seminal work. Despite leaving no identifiable mark in Late Antiquity, Themistius’ paraphrase played a dramatic role in shaping the metaphysical landscape of Medieval Arabic and Hebrew philosophy and theology. Lost in Greek, and only partially surviving in Arabic, its earliest full version is in the form of a 13th century Hebrew translation. In this volume, Yoav Meyrav offers a new critical edition of the Hebrew translation and the Arabic fragments of Themistius’ paraphrase, accompanied by detailed philological and philosophical analyses. In doing so, he provides a solid foundation for the study of one of the most important texts in the history of Aristotelian metaphysics.
The terminology in medieval Hebrew medical literature (original works and translations) has been sorely neglected by modern research. Medical terminology is virtually missing from the standard dictionaries of the Hebrew language, including Ha-Millon he-ḥadash, composed by Abraham Even-Shoshan. Ben-Yehuda’s dictionary is the only one that contains a significant number of medical terms. Unfortunately, Ben-Yehuda’s use of the medieval medical texts listed in the dictionary’s introduction is inconsistent at best. The only dictionary exclusively devoted to medical terms, both medieval and modern, is that by A.M. Masie, entitled Dictionary of Medicine and Allied Sciences. However, like the dictionary by Ben-Yehuda, it only makes occasional use of the sources registered in the introduction and only rarely differentiates between the various medieval translators. Further, since Masie’s work is alphabetized according to the Latin or English term, it cannot be consulted for Hebrew terms. The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, which is currently being created by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, has not been taken into account consistently as it is not a dictionary in the proper sense of the word. Moreover, consultation of this resource suggests that it is generally deficient in medieval medical terminology. The Bar Ilan Responsa Project has also been excluded as a source, despite the fact that it contains a larger number of medieval medical terms than the Historical Dictionary. The present dictionary has two major objectives: 1) to map the medical terminology featured in medieval Hebrew medical works, in order to facilitate study of medical terms, especially those terms that do not appear in the existing dictionaries, and terms that are inadequately represented. 2) to identify the medical terminology used by specific authors and ranslators, to enable the identification of anonymous medical material.
Maimonides, On the Elucidation of Some Symptoms and the Response to Them (Formerly Known as On the Causes of Symptoms)
A New Parallel Arabic-English Edition and Translation, with Critical Editions of the Medieval Hebrew Translations
The present consilium, commonly known as De causis accidentium, after the Latin translation by John de Capua, was, like the earlier consilium On the Regimen of Health, composed by Maimonides at the request of al-Malik al-Afḍal Nūr al-Dīn Alī, Saladin’s eldest son. As a result of not adopting the lifestyle and dietary recommendations in On the Regimen of Health, al-Afḍal may have continued to suffer from a number of afflictions, amongst them hemorrhoids, depression, constipation, and, possibly, a heart condition. The consilium was written after 1200, the year in which al-Afḍal was deposed and banished from Egypt permanently, but probably not long before 1204, the year in which Maimonides died.
A New Parallel Arabic-English Translation
Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health was composed at an unknown date at the request of al-Malik al-Afḍal Nūr al-Dīn Alī, Saladin’s eldest son who complained of constipation, indigestion, and depression. The treatise must have enjoyed great popularity in Jewish circles, as it was translated three times into Hebrew as far as we know; by Moses ben Samuel ibn Tibbon in the year 1244, by an anonymous translator, and by Zeraḥyah ben Isaac ben She’altiel Ḥen who was active as a translator in Rome between 1277 and 1291. The present edition by Gerrit Bos contains the original Arabic text, the medieval Hebrew translations and the Latin translations, the latter edited by Michael McVaugh.
A New Parallel Arabic-English Edition and Translation
Edited by Gerrit Bos
Moses Maimonides' On Coitus was composed at the request of an unknown high-ranking official who asked for a regimen that would be easy to adhere to, and that would increase his sexual potency, as he had a large number of slave girls. It is safe to assume that it was popular in Jewish and non-Jewish circles, as it survives in several manuscripts, both in Arabic and Judaeo-Arabic. The present edition by Gerrit Bos contains the original Arabic text, three medieval Hebrew translations, two Latin versions from the same translation (edited by Charles Burnett), and a Slavonic translation (edited by Will Ryan and Moshe Taube).
This volume is part of a wider project aiming at mapping the technical medical terminology as it features in medieval Hebrew medical works, especially those terms that do not feature in the current dictionaries at all, or insufficiently. In this way the author hopes to facilitate the consultation of these and other medical works and the identification of anonymous medical material. The terminology discussed in this volume has been derived from three primary and seven secondary sources. The primary sources are: (1) Sefer Ṣedat ha-Derakhim – Moses Ibn Tibbon’s translation of Ibn al-Jazzār’s Zād al-musāfir, bks. 1–2; (2) Sefer ha-Shimmush – Shem Tov Ben Isaac’s Hebrew translation of al-Zahrāwī’s Kitāb al-taṣrīf; (3) Sefer ha-Qanun – Nathan ha-Meʾati’s Hebrew translation of the first book of Ibn Sīnā’s K. al-Qānūn.
Le plaisir, le bonheur, et l’acquisition des vertus: Édition du Livre X du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote
Accompagnée d’une traduction française annotée, et précédée de deux études sur le Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque
This volume contains the first edition of the Latin version of the Middle Commentary of Averroes on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book X, the original arabic version being lost. It is accompanied by an annotated French translation. The volume also contains a full study of the manuscript tradition of the Latin text and sets outs the principles used in the edition, which takes into account, where necessary, the Hebrew version of the Commentary. Two further studies complete the volume: the first is devoted to the genre of “Middle Commentary” ( talḫīṣ); the second considers how Averroes uses an analogy with medicine to place ethics at the heart of practical philosophy, and how, in a manner that is foreign to Aristotle, he conceives of ethics as a “science.” Ce volume propose la toute première édition, accompagnée d’une traduction française annotée, de la version latine du Commentaire moyen d’Averroès à l’Éthique à Nicomaque d’Aristote Livre X, dont l’original arabe est perdu. Il présente également une étude complète de la tradition manuscrite du texte latin, et les principes d’édition, qui prennent en compte, ponctuellement, la version hébraïque du Commentaire. Deux études viennent compléter ce volume: l’une, consacrée à la notion de “commentaire moyen” ( talḫīṣ), l’autre à la place qu’Averroès — par le biais d’une analogie avec la médecine — réserve à l’éthique au sein de la philosophie pratique, et à la façon dont il conçoit désormais, de façon non aristotélicienne, l’éthique comme une “science.”
The Kitāb Taḥrīm dafn al-aḥyāʾ, Arabic Edition and English Translation with a Hebrew Supplement by Gerrit Bos
Oliver Kahl and Gerrit Bos
The Kitāb Taḥrīm dafn al-aḥyāʾ, the Book on the Prohibition to Bury the Living, written by the Nestorian physician ʿUbaidallāh Ibn Buḫtīšūʿ (d. c. 1060 CE), deals with the causes, signs and treatments of apparent death. Based on a short pseudo-Galenic treatise, whose Greek original is lost, ʿUbaidallāh’s Arabic commentary is a comprehensive and in many ways unique piece of scientific writing that moreover promotes a psychological understanding of physical illness. Oliver Kahl’s present book offers a critical Arabic edition with annotated English translation of ʿUbaidallāh’s work on apparent death, framed by a detailed introductory study and extensive glossaries covering all relevant terms; for comparative purposes, the Arabic and Hebrew recensions of the lost Greek prototype are presented in an appendix.
Book I-X of Kitāb al-Hayawān
Aristotle’s Historia Animalium is one of the most famous and influential zoological works that was ever written. It was translated into Arabic in the 9th century CE together with Aristotle’s other zoological works, On the Generation of Animals and On the Parts of Animals. As a result, the influence of Aristotelian zoology is widely traceable in classical Arabic literary culture and thought. The Arabic translation found its way into Europe through the 13th-century Latin translation by Michael Scotus, which was extensively used by medieval European scholars. A critical edition of the Arabic Historia Animalium has long been awaited, and Lourus Filius’s edition, based on all extant Arabic MSS, as well as on Scotus’s Latin translation, can rightly be seen as a scholarly landmark.