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Editors / Translators: Francis G. Gentry and Timothy Barnwell
The two-volume Brill's Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages offers an accessible yet engaging coverage of medieval European history and culture, c. 500-c. 1500, in a series of themed articles, taking an interdisciplinary and comparative approach. Presenting a broad range of topics current in research, the encyclopedia is dedicated to all aspects of medieval life, organized in eight sections: Society; Faith and Knowledge; Literature; Fine Arts and Music; Economy; Technology; Living Environments and Conditions; and Constitutive Historical Events and Regions. This thematic structure makes the encyclopedia a true reference work for Medieval Studies as a whole. It is accessible and concise enough for quick reference, while also providing a solid grounding in a new topic with a good level of detail, since many of its articles are longer than traditional encyclopedia entries. The encyclopedia is supported by an extensive bibliography, updated with the most recent works and adapted to suit the needs of an Anglophone audience.

Brill's Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages is a unique work, and invaluable equally for research and for teaching. Anyone interested in the art, architecture, economy, history, language, law, literature, music, religion, or science of the Middle Ages, will find the encyclopedia an indispensable resource.

This is an English translation of the second edition (2013) of the well-known German-language Enzyklopädie des Mittelalters, published by Primus Verlag / Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Also available online, individually as Brill's Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages Online and as part of Brill's Medieval Reference Library Online.
Alexander the Great, Caesar, Caligula, Cicero, Cleopatra, Diogenes, Hypatia, Leonidas, Lucretia, Nero, Sappho and Socrates—all famous women and men from Antiquity who have fascinated across the centuries that divide us from them. We encounter them again and again in literature, art, music, film and new media forms such as graphic novels.

The 96 contributions in Brill’s New Pauly Supplement 7: Historical Figures from Antiquity written by an international team of scholars depict the survival of these great characters from Antiquity to the modern world. Each article presents an overview of the latest research on what we know concerning the lives of the historical person or legendary figure and then recounts the reception of these figures throughout history, giving special attention on the viewpoints in the early modern and contemporary periods. Turning the spotlight on the leitmotifs of established images and theories allows the reader to reassess the importance of these figures in our history and culture.
Translated and edited by Duncan A. Smart and Chad M. Schroeder
Adding flexibility, user-friendliness, and multilinguality to Kirschbaum's reference work
The most comprehensive source of information on Christian iconography

This online edition of the LCI combines the valuable content of the unique iconographical reference work with the possibilities of the Digital Humanities: links to other databases and sources, connections to millions of images, and Google Translate support for English, French, and Italian

The Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie - Lexicon of Christian Iconography (LCI) is an eight-volume iconographical reference work on motifs of Christian tradition prepared by Kirschbaum and his successors. Volumes 1-4 cover general iconographic terms, giving the context of individual subjects and themes. Volumes 5-8 cover the iconography of saints. In addition to the iconography of a motif or saint, the articles list the most important sources, often a short biography and a short list of the most important research literature. Illustrations represent essential types of the respective picture object. Although the first volume of the LCI was published in 1968 and the eighth in 1976 it remains the standard work in German to this day and has been reissued several times unchanged. The new Brill online publication combines the valuable content with the advantages of digitization.

The digital edition
A completely revised edition of the LCI’s content and an English translation would have taken years to produce. More importantly perhaps, a complete overhaul of its content would have disconnected the lexicon from the thousands of references in scholarly literature pointing to the LCI by volume and column number. Hence, we decided to produce the first digital edition of the LCI in a more cautious manner.
The first step towards a digital edition had to be to improve the ease-of-use of the lexicon, while preserving the original layout and content of the lemmata and the articles. To facilitate navigation, the pages have been digitized, while the lemmata and the full text of the eight volumes have been made browsable and searchable. Because Google translate has been incorporated in the database, the German language text can easily be translated in English, French, Italian and Dutch. Each lemma is now provided with an Iconclass notation and directly linked to Brill’s Arkyves database, a treasure trove of images to illustrate the various motifs and themes. Linking to other databases, either in Open Access or subscription based, is a work in progress.

Special Features
- Full text searchable in German
- The Iconclass encoding automatically added more than 100,000 keywords in German, English, French, Italian and Portuguese, a first but important step towards multilingual accessibility
- Page overview of all 2840 pages in the LCI in one giant zoomable and clickable Metabotnik image
- Lemma list in German (Concordances in English, French and Italian forthcoming)
- Because Google Translate is incorporated in LCI, English, French, Italian and Dutch versions of the original German are automatically provided
- References are clickable and offer the opportunity to jump to the relevant page in the LCI
- Searchable by Iconclass codes
- Most black and white images in the original Lexicon now available in full color
- Direct link with Arkyves, containing more than 1 million images (full access for Arkyves subscribers only)
- Direct link to Index of Medieval Art (Princeton University)

New features in development
- English, French and Italian lemmalist
- Direct link to other databases and typological sources
- Direct link to English language Bible texts
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