Mandarin Chinese allows implicit, non-canonical, and quantity-objects. The first type is seen in Wǒ zhǎo-guò-le ‘Lit.: I looked for’, which means ‘I have looked for some entity that is known to the interlocutors’. The second type is seen in Lìlì qiē-le nà bǎ dà dāo ‘Lit.: Lili cut that big knife’, which means that Lili cut something with that big knife. The third type is seen in zǒu-le yī lǐ ‘walked one mile’. From the perspective of the interaction of yòu ‘again’ with different kinds of objects, this paper shows that while implicit objects and quantity-objects behave like explicit canonical objects, non-canonical objects do not behave like canonical ones. This paper provides new evidence to support Zhang Niina Ning’s (2018, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 36: 1395–1437) claim that a non-canonical object restricts the meaning of the verb, rather than saturates any argument of the verb. It also supports the internal argument analysis of post-verbal quantity expressions.
Rhyming patterns play a crucial role in the phonological reconstruction of earlier stages of Chinese. The past few years have seen the emergence of the use of graphs to model rhyming patterns, notably with List’s (2016) proposal to use graph community detection as a way to go beyond the limits of the link-and-bind method and test new hypotheses regarding phonological reconstruction. List’s approach requires the existence of a rhyme-annotated corpus; such corpora are rare and prohibitively expensive to produce. The present paper solves this problem by introducing several strategies to automate annotation. Among others, the main contribution is the use of graph community detection itself to build an automatic annotator. This annotator requires no previous annotation, no knowledge of phonology, and automatically adapts to corpora of different periods by learning their rhyme categories. Through a series of case studies, we demonstrate the viability of the approach in quickly annotating hundreds of thousands of poems with high accuracy.
Cet article esquisse la description morphologique du verbe simple en kulung (kiranti, tibéto-birman), à l’ exclusion des formations réfléchies et composées. Comme l’ ensemble des langues kiranties, le kulung se signale par une morphologie verbale non triviale associant polysynthèse, indexation biactantielle et allormorphie radicale. La description de la morphologie affixale clarifie et complète celle qu’ en donne Tolsma (2006). La description de l’ allomorphie radicale fait appel à la notion d’ espace thématique telle qu’ explicitée dans les travaux de Boyé & Bonami (2003) et Bonami (2014). L’ ensemble des modifications apportées à la description de Tolsma (2006) repose à la fois sur une analyse des contradictions internes de l’ ouvrage, et sur l’ analyse d’ un corpus opportuniste de 150 000 mots.
This paper looks at the history of Tosu using 'forward reconstruction'. It concludes that Proto-Ersuic changed *-im to *-am already before its breakup as a unity, but the ‘brightening’ of *-a- to -i- took place independently in Tosu and Lizu-Ersu. In Tosu this brightening did not target labial (or velar) initial words lacking an inherited medial *-j-. A number of changes in the history of Tosu probably preceded brightening, namely *-um, *-ak > -o and *-u, *-it, *-at, *-ra > -e. In contrast, the change *-e- > -i- in Tosu, of unclear conditioning, appears to be quite late. A dissimilation *CeCe > CeCa is potentially also a recent change.
Le 10 avril 2021, notre ami et collègue Yau Shun-chiu, directeur de recherches émérite au CNRS, nous quittait. Yau est né à Hong Kong en 1936. Cinquième d’ une fratrie de neuf enfants, il est adopté tout petit par la famille de l’ aîné de ses oncles qui n’ a pas de fils, mais continue de jouer avec ses « cousins » qui ne sont autres que ses frères et sœurs.
Après une double licence en chinois et en anglais, ainsi qu’ une maîtrise en linguistique à l’ Université de Hong Kong, une bourse du gouvernement français lui permet, en 1968, de poursuivre ses études
This paper argues that Tocharian B koṣko, koṣkīye does not mean ‘hut’, as was taken for granted, but ‘pit, hole’; and that it is not an inherited Indo-European word, but an Iranian loanword in Tocharian B. Although the possibility of a borrowing from an unknown Middle Iranian language cannot be excluded, an unattested (Pre-)Bactrian form *kōškā is demonstrated to be the most likely source of this loanword.
Elizabeth A. Cecil, Mapping the Pāśupata Landscape: Narrative, Place, and the Śaiva Imaginary in Early Medieval North India, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2021. (Gonda Indological Studies, Vol. 21.) xiii, 271 pp. € 66.00 / $ 80.00. ISBN: 978-90-04-42394-7.
In this thoroughly documented book, Elizabeth Cecil marshals textual, architectural, epigraphic, and art-historical evidence to aid in the recovery of the fascinating history of the spread of Śaivism in northern India from the sixth to the tenth centuries. The project is occasioned, and partially informed, by the serial production of the critical edition of the Skandapurāṇa (SP), produced
This paper reconsiders the long-held view that Chapter 36 of the Nanhai jigui neifa zhuan or “Record of the Inner Law Sent Home from the South Seas” written by the Chinese pilgrim Yijing is a translation of a long passage from the Cīvaravastu of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya. Through comparing Chapter 36 with the Gilgit Sanskrit text of the Cīvaravastu, the Tibetan translation of the Cīvaravastu, and Yijing’s translation of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinayasaṃgraha, this paper reveals, on the one hand, significant differences between Chapter 36 and the extant versions of the Cīvaravastu, and, on the other hand, substantial overlap between Chapter 36 and Yijing’s translation of the Vinayasaṃgraha. It argues that Chapter 36 was not translated from the Cīvaravastu (or at least not from a version of the Cīvaravastu identical with or similar to the Gilgit Sanskrit version), but rather seems to have been composed by Yijing through drawing largely (though not entirely) from the Vinayasaṃgraha. This paper therefore demonstrates anew that Yijing’s travel record cannot be simply taken as his eyewitness report of Buddhist monastic practices in ancient India.