This book presents fifty-one didactic and devotional Sufi poems (with English translations) composed by the ulama of Brava, on Somalia’s Benadir coast, in Chimiini, a Bantu language related to Swahili and unique to the town. Because the six ulama-poets, among whom two women, guided local believers towards correct beliefs and behaviours in reference to specific authoritative religious texts, the poems allow insight into their authors’ religious education, affiliations, in which the Qādiriyyah and Aḥmadiyyah took pride of place, and regional connections. Because the poems refer to local people, places, events, and livelihoods, they also bring into view the uniquely local dimension of Islam in this small East African port city in this time-period.
Who are the Europeans? How do they think about life after death, work, sex, euthanasia, immigration or freedom? What traditions do they cherish, and which modern values gain ground? This second Atlas of European Values summarizes the beliefs of Europeans in almost two hundred informative graphs, charts and maps.
This Atlas is the result of the European Values Study, a research project that has measured values and beliefs throughout Europe since the 1980s. Today, the study spans a full generation, revealing value changes on topics such as homosexuality and working moms, but also demonstrating firm European traditions in democracy and rejection of bribes.
The unique Atlas of European Values covers all European nations from Iceland to Turkey, and from Portugal to Russia. It graphically illustrates the rich diversity of values and beliefs of the more than 800 million Europeans living inside and outside the European Union today.