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Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 1: Scientific Expeditions in the Netherlands East Indies, 1888-1948 – The Archive of the Indies Committee for Scientific Research and Related Bodies

From the National Archives of the Netherlands

on microfiche

Background
Trade follows the flag, but it also follows science, or so believed the Dutch with regard to their immense colony in the Indonesian archipelago. At the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth there were still many white spots on the map and many things to be learned about the people and islands under Dutch control, in particular the second largest island in the world, the virtually unexplored New Guinea. Such knowledge would lead to a more efficient economic exploitation of the colony for agriculture, industry and mining. In keeping also with a current of thinking in colonial policy going back to the 1840s (J.C. Baud), knowledge of the indigenous peoples and cultures was necessary for good governance and public acceptance of Dutch rule. Finally, in this "age of imperialism" the Dutch feared that if they did not undertake the exploration and opening up of the remoter parts of their island empire, other nations just might be tempted to try.

Origins of the Committee
By the late 1880s dissatisfaction with the less than successful efforts of the Royal Dutch Geographical Society (1873) in organizing and carrying out scientific expeditions led to the founding of new organizations for this purpose. In 1887 Dr. Melchior Treub, director of the Botanical Gardens in Buitenzorg (Bogor), founded the "Commission for the Promotion of Research in the Natural Sciences in the Dutch Colonies" in Amsterdam. He firmly believed a base in the Indies was needed for successful organization of expeditions and in 1888 he set up an " Indisch Comité" (Indies Committee) in Batavia, whose members were recruited from local learned societies and included such distinguished figures as the linguist and ethnologist C. Snouck Hurgronje. Two years later L. Serrurier founded the "Society for the Promotion of Research in the Natural Sciences in the Dutch Colonies", which soon eclipsed and took over the Commission. It used the Indies Committee as its executive branch in the colony. Unlike the Commission, the Society eagerly sought to raise funds from the colonial government and the business community and entrusted the Indies Committee with administering and spending the annual government subsidy of 10,000 guilders it received. In 1897 the Indies Committee became an official legal entity for that purpose under the name Indisch Comité voor Wetenschappelijke Onderzoekingen (ICWO) (Indies Committee for Scientific Research) and came more and more to regard itself not as a subsidiary, but rather as the equal of the Society and other bodies. In the course of the years it strove to achieve an independent status and to raise money from business to supplement the subsidy. In the period from the 1890s until the advent of the Great Depression in the 1930s, when sources of funding dried up, it used its resources to organize a series of scientific expeditions, support and encourage research in other ways and maintain contacts with scientific organizations and institutions internationally. Among the disciplines in which the ICWO sought to stimulate work were, in addition to geography and cartography, zoology, botany, geology, topography, hydrology, oceanography, linguistics, anthropology, ethnography and ethnomusicology.

Expeditions undertaken
In its heyday the ICWO organized and sent out major general scientific expeditions usually preceded by reconnaissance missions accompanied by military personnel. In addition it organized oceanographic and geological expeditions as follows:

General Scientific Expeditions
• Borneo: 1892, 1897-1898, 1925
• Buru (1921)
• New Guinea: 1895, 1902-1903, 1909-1910, 1912-1913 (south, Snow Mountains), 1920-1921 (central), 1920-1921 (north), 1926 (joint American expedition, central-north, Nassau Mountains), 1932 (north, plans)
• Sangi and Talaud islands, Morotai: 1926
• Oceanographic (the "Snellius") expedition: 1928

Reconnaissance expeditions
• New Guinea: 1904-1906 (de Rochemont), 1905 (SW coast), 1908-1912 (military, south), 1910 (cover for an English expedition), 1910 (west); 1909-1910 (Humboldt Bay, north), 1910-1912 (west); 1912 (north), 1914 (north, survey books), 1926 (north, survey book)

Geological expeditions
• New Guinea (north), 1932-1933, 1933-1935

The Archive
The archive contains among others:
minutes of the Committee's meetings from 1888 to 1940
• a very large body of (international) correspondence with scientists, scientific organizations and laboratories, museums, libraries and universities, and with government officials, businesses, etc. indexed by the National Archives
plans and proposals for expeditions and other forms of research
• published and unpublished reports and results of the expeditions undertaken
diaries and field notes
• printed and hand-drawn maps and drawings
• photos
• requests for research and publication subsidies
• fundraising appeals
• financial and administrative papers

Archives of related bodies
Also included in the present micropublication are two related archives. The Natuurwetenschappelijke Raad van Nederlandsch-Indië (Natural Science Council of the Netherlands East Indies) (1925-1941) was an organ set up in Batavia to provide advice to the Netherlands Indies government on all science-related issues and to stimulate and coordinate research. Its archive has (international) correspondence, all indexed, and other documents, including those relating to an expedition to New Guinea in 1938.

Founded after the Second World War, the Coordinatie Commissie voor Natuurwetenschappelijke Zaken (1945-1948) (Coordinating Commission for Natural Science Affairs) had the task of getting scientific organizations running again after the Japanese occupation and also corresponded internationally ( indexed ), including with the Netherlands New Guinea Exploration Committee in 1946-1948.

Various Authors & Editors

Rare Indonesian-Language Periodical: Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), 1869-1925

Background
In cooperation with the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia and the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies, Moran Micropublications has made an edition on microfiche of the very rare twice monthly newspaper Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), which was published in Manado in the Minahasa region of northern Sulawesi between 1869 and 1925. It is one of the oldest Malay-language newspapers of the Netherlands East Indies and the first, and for five decades, only one published in the Minahasa. It is of great importance for the history of the local and regional press in Indonesia.

Founder and goals
It was founded by Nicolaas Graafland, a missionary of the Protestant Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, with the goal of fostering the development of the indigenous people of the Minahasa, not only in a religious sense, but also socially, intellectually and morally through reading and education. Graafland himself had been sent to the East Indies to help set up teacher training schools and viewed the paper as an extension of such work. In this regard the paper was part of a current of colonial thinking promoting the uplifting of the people through education that would crystallize into the “Ethical Policy” around 1900. The choice of name is no accident. Its task was to bring light to the population, not only the light of the Gospel, but also that of western civilization banishing the dark age of tradition and superstition that had prevailed until then. Newspapers with names in which light played a role sprang up in other parts of the archipelago in this period.

To accomplish its ends Tjahaja Sijang published articles and editorials on a great variety of subjects, both secular and religious, ranging from traditional versus Christian conceptions of marriage to economic and social issues such as systems of money and exchange and the use of forced labor. Although founded by, edited and written for by Dutch missionaries, Tjahaja Sijang attracted more and more Indonesian contributors, such as district and village heads, assistants from coffee plantations, school teachers and doctors. The many letters to the editor it published provide an invaluable primary source for probing the thinking of the local population. Increasingly the paper also published news from other regions and countries, thus exposing the people to the wider world. By the end of the period, the newspaper was entirely in Indonesian hands and had shed much of its missionary trappings. It had also grown more political, although never as radical as the nationalist press emerging elsewhere in the islands in the 1920s.

Malay
The use of the Malay language as spoken in the Minahasa also makes Tjahaja Sijang interesting from a linguistic point of view. Malay was the obvious choice for publication because it had long been the lingua franca of the region and was in use in education and by the colonial administration. Its use in turn by the paper during more than 50 years no doubt helped form the local variant of the language and promote its adoption by the people of the Minahasa. This linguistic link to the wider Malay-speaking world initiated by Dutch missionaries may then, albeit unintended, have acted as a factor in the process of national integration that was starting to unfold during these years.

Source: “Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), its significance for the History of the Indonesian Local Press,” by A.B. Lapian in Proceedings: Seventh IAHA Conference 22-26 August 1977 . Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press 1979. Vol. 2, pp. 910-923

Technical note on the microfiches
The microfiches published here were made for Moran Micropublications by reformatting 35mm microfilms of Tjahaja Sijang originally made by the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia, lent to us by the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden, the Netherlands. The films were made under technically less than optimal conditions and some images were of poor quality.
During the reformatting process an effort was made to achieve better quality images, which by and large succeeded. In a few cases, however, the quality could not be enhanced.

Various Authors & Editors

Women in the Netherlands East Indies. Part 1: The Archive of the Colonial School for Girls and Women, The Hague, 1920-1949
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Introduction
Starting in the second half of the nineteenth century a western-style capitalist economy began to develop in the Netherlands East Indies colony. Numerous agricultural , trading , mining and extraction companies were founded to exploit such crops and natural resources as tobacco, rubber and oil, particularly on Sumatra's East coast, but also on the other "outer islands", which were brought under Dutch control during the second half of the nineteenth and first years of the twentieth century. The infrastructure improved through the building of roads, bridges and railways, and steamship and packet boat companies began to operate regular services connecting the various islands of the archipelago on the one hand and Europe with the East Indies on the other with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869. A new so-called "ethical policy" was officially introduced in the colony in 1901 that aimed to develop the East Indies through the use of western methods and technology and the expansion of education among the indigenous population. As a result more European men, and in increasing numbers women, were attracted to the East Indies seeking work and a new life. The previously slow-paced society there - the so-called "tempoe doeloe" - in which the native njai (housekeeper) played an important role, began to change character. Urbanization proceeded apace and western-style tropical suburbs began to develop, but in many places, particularly in the outer islands, the European officials, planters and employees still confronted primitive and isolated conditions. European women who wanted to emigrate to the East Indies, especially to the more remote areas, had to prepare themselves for this challenge. Education was deemed essential and in this context the Colonial School was born.

School founded
The Colonial School for Girls and Women was founded on 11 March 1920 with the goal of giving young women who wanted to live and work in the Dutch East Indies an education that would enable them to adapt more easily to the new and unfamiliar environment. It also addressed itself to women who had been born and brought up in the Indies, but had been living for some time in the Netherlands. In addition to the main course on Dutch and Indonesian cooking and childcare, there were also courses given in the Malay language and on the geography and ethnology of the East Indies. Financial support was given by companies and individuals with an interest in promoting this endeavor and the school was able to open its doors in a building on the Westeinde in The Hague on 24 September 1921. The courses lasted for three months, the initial ones running from 26 September to 22 December 1921. In its promotional and course material the school reflected the role attributed at the time to women in the family, not only in the colony, but also in the Netherlands itself. Not only did the women have to adapt to life in the East, but they were also expected to bring a bit of the home country with them, as can be seen from the courses on Dutch cooking.
In the course of the years the school went through some difficult periods, especially during the crisis of the depression around 1933 when various companies discontinued their sponsorship and fewer students applied, and of course also during the years of the Second World War, when the Netherlands was occupied by the Germans and the East Indies by the Japanese. After the war in 1946 a spirited attempt was made to relaunch the school's activities, but the unfavorable influence exercised by the anticolonial uprising and the events of decolonization in Indonesia could not be overcome. On 26 February 1949 it was decided to change the name of the school to the "East Indian [Indische] School for Girls and Women", but given the political developments in Indonesia it was already too late. The school no longer had a reason for existence and closed for good on 29 December 1949, with the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic of Indonesia.

The archive
Among others things, the archive contains the following sorts of documents:
- Minutes of meetings of the school's administration, 1920-1949
- Minutes of members' meetings, 1920-1949
- Incoming correspondence and copies of outgoing correspondence, 1921-1949 [1953]
- Correspondence of the school's president, 1921-1926
- Annual reports, 1920-1949
- Documents concerning the foundation and opening of the school
- Documents concerning the school's personnel and students, including photos of lessons and correspondence received from former students
- Documents concerning the courses and teaching materials, books used, etc.
- Financial affairs of the school, including lists of members and contributors
- Promotional and recruiting materials for the school, such as prospectuses, circulars, course descriptions, transcripts of radio talks, etc.
- Newspaper and magazine stories concerning the school

Importance for research
Researchers into a variety of questions will profit from use of this archive, for example those interested in:
- the role of women in a colonial state
- "ethical" thinking on education for European women in the colonial context
- background, motivations, reflections and experiences of the women involved
- background and motivations of sponsors and supporters
- background and motivations of teachers and administrators
- subjects taught and teaching materials used and their content, propaganda for the school and colonialism
- reactions to the growing national awareness of the colonized in this period; colonial mentalities, attitudes toward colonialism and indigenous peoples
- the vagaries of the colonial enterprise in increasingly difficult economic and political times as reflected through the history of the school

Various Authors & Editors

Women in the Netherlands East Indies. Part 2: The Kartini-schools for Girls: The Archive of the Kartini Fund, 1912-1960
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

The Ethical policy
Around 1900 Dutch colonial policy made a sharp change of course. The previous "liberal" decades had witnessed a rapid expansion of a western-style modern economy fed by an influx of capital from the Netherlands and other European countries as finally the whole archipelago was brought under Dutch control. At this point good business practice intersected with humanitarian impulses in calling for a general increase in the welfare of the indigenous population in order to further the efficient exploitation of the new colonial economy. This "ethical policy" rested on the pillars of improved education to create better native administrators and workers, irrigation to increase crop yields in order to feed the steadily increasing population, and emigration to relocate people from overpopulated Java to the outer islands to work in new enterprises being developed there.
Education was supposed to be the showcase of the new policy and many initiatives were in fact undertaken by the colonial government up to about 1930, but given the enormous size of the population the ultimate results were disappointing and most benefits were restricted to a tiny male elite. In terms of education for women, the modest efforts of J.H. Abendanon, director of the department of education (1900-1905), to create opportunities for upper-class Javanese women soon foundered on the conservative resistance of both Dutch colonial officials and the Javanese regent class (the bupatis).

Kartini
The cause of education for (elite)women had been taken up and championed by Raden Ajeng (=Lady) Kartini (1879-1904), a daughter of the progressive regent of Jepara in north central Java. Quite unusually for the time and place she had attended the European lower school in the regency and learned to speak and write fluent Dutch. Although still very young she made many influential contacts among Dutch colonial officials and politicians in the Netherlands itself and carried on an extensive correspondence in which she advocated female education and emancipation, in particular ending the practice of polygamy by the males of her class. She died at the age of twenty-five following complications on the birth of her first child. Although it would be anachronistic to call her a nationalist or feminist, she was later revered by the national movement for independence as a pioneer and her birthday is now a national holiday in Indonesia.

The Kartini fund
Among her many correspondents were Abandanon himself and his wife. In 1911 he edited a selection of her letters to them and others and published them under the title Door duisternis tot licht ("Through darkness to light", later translated into English as Letters of a Javanese princess). Kartini had inspired many people in the colony and the home country with her ideals. Royalties from the book and other donations made possible the creation of the "Kartini Fund" in 1913, a privately administered foundation to realize her goal of providing Dutch-language secondary education to Javanese girls. That same year the first "Kartini school" opened in Semarang, Central Java. Many were to follow in subsequent years.

The Kartini schools
Set up as simple boarding schools for Javanese girls who had been through the European lower school, they were to provide secondary education for a maximum of seven years. The teaching staff was to be entirely female and was encouraged as much as possible to live in so as to constitute "one big family" with the pupils. According to the statues the curriculum was to consist of among others:
- continued Dutch, with the aim of fostering a taste for edifying reading
- Javanese language and literature
- geography and history
- drawing and aesthetics
- home economics, with some gardening
- refresher lessons in arithmetic, especially in the context of simple bookkeeping
- practical and fine needlework
- principles of hygiene and first aid
- principles of education
- singing and principles of musical theory
Finally, those who wished to train for professions open to native women were to be given every assistance within the limits of the available teaching staff.

The archive
The archive contains correspondence, reports, statutes, minutes of meetings, financial documents, teaching materials, photos, brochures, periodicals, press clippings and other types of documentation concerning the founding and adminstration of the Kartini schools in general and the individual schools in Java. The complete inventory is available for consultation.

Zwolse boeken voor een markt zonder grenzen, 1477-1523

Met een catalogus van de verschenen edities en gegevens over de bewaard gebleven exemplaren

Series:

Jos M.M. Hermans

Description of the 267 different editions of books printed in Zwolle in the first half century since the first printed book in Zwolle (1477-1523). The 267 editions are chronologically ordered by printer (among which are Johannes van Vollenhove, Pieter en Tymen van Os van Breda and Simon Corver), described and annotated.

Arnold Borret

Suriname, gezichten, typen en costumen: naar de natuur geteekend door A. Borret

Series:

Rosemarijn Höfte and Clazien Medendorp

Arnold Borret (1848-1888) vertrok in mei 1878 naar Suriname. Hij was 29 jaar, jurist en had een aanstelling als griffier van het Hof van Justitie in Paramaribo op zak. Al spoedig werd hij rechter en later ook lid van de Koloniale Staten. In 1882 gaf hij al zijn hoge functies op om toe te treden tot de orde der redemptoristen. Ook hier klom hij snel op in de hiërarchie. Hij werd priester en later provicaris. In 1888 maakte de tyfus een einde aan zijn leven. Borret was een gedreven tekenaar en schilder. Hij legde zijn indrukken van Suriname vast in een album. Begin 1882 stuurde hij dit naar zijn broer Theodoor in Nederland. Deze schonk het in 1911 aan het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Voor het eerst worden nu alle 148 tekeningen uit het album gereproduceerd. Tevens bevat dit boek vier tekeningen die zijn gevonden in het archief van de redemptoristen in Wittem, Limburg.
Deze publicatie laat zien hoe Borret tegen Suriname aankeek, een land dat hem, zoals hij zelf schreef, voor zijn vertrek geheel onbekend was. Wat gaf hij weer van de natuur, de mensen, de verschillende bevolkingsgroepen met hun kleding en gebruiken? Meteen als zijn schip in Frankrijk van wal steekt, begint hij te tekenen. De aquarellen, pen- en potloodtekeningen en een enkele krijttekening, laten ons delen in Borrets verwondering en belangstelling voor zijn nieuwe land.

Series:

Ellen-Rose Kambel and Fergus MacKay

De rechten van inheemse volken en marrons in Suriname is een uniek boek waarin de rechten en de positie van inheemse volken en marrons in Suriname systematisch in kaart worden gebracht en geanalyseerd. De auteurs tonen dat bestaande en veel geciteerde opvattingen dat inheemsen en marrons geen rechten hebben, onderbouwing missen en verouderd of discriminerend zijn. Er wordt aandacht besteed aan enkele recente ontwikkelingen zoals het Vredesakkoord van Lelydorp uit 1992, waarmee formeel een einde kwam aan de binnenlandse oorlog (1986-1992) en het Buskondre Protocol uit 2000. Voorts wordt ingegaan op de internationale verplichtingen van Suriname om de rechten van inheemsen en marrons te erkennen, te respecteren en te garanderen. Tenslotte worden een aantal conclusies en aanbevelingen aangeboden.

De belangrijkste conclusie van de auteurs is dat het Surinaams recht méér bescherming biedt dan algemeen wordt aangenomen in Suriname. Echter, zelfs deze standaard van bescherming ligt veel lager dan de internationaal erkende mensenrechten van inheemse en in stamverband levende volken en is in strijd met de internationale verplichtingen van de Surinaamse staat. De voornaamste aanbeveling is dan ook dat de Surinaamse wetgeving herzien dient te worden en in overeenstemming gebracht moet worden met Suriname's internationale verplichtingen ten aanzien van de mensenrechten van inheemsen en marrons. Dit is niet alleen een internationale juridische verplichting, maar zal ten goede komen aan alle Surinamers en de ontwikkeling van Suriname in het algemeen.

Een feministe in de tropen

De Indische jaren van Mina Kruseman

Series:

Olf Praamstra

Mina Kruseman (1839-1922) was in de jaren zeventig van de negentiende eeuw de meest bewonderde en tegelijkertijd de meest verguisde feministe van haar tijd. Ze schreef boeken, stond op het toneel en voerde polemieken in dagbladen en tijdschriften. Maar dan, op het hoogtepunt van haar roem, in augustus 1877, vertrekt ze plotseling naar Nederlands-Indië. Daarna lijkt ze voorgoed uit het openbare leven verdwenen.
Er is tot nu toe weinig onderzoek verricht naar de Indische jaren van Mina Kruseman. In de loop van de tijd is er een beeld ontstaan van een excentrieke vrouw, die dwaasheid op dwaasheid stapelde en zich in de kolonie volslagen onmogelijk maakte toen ze in 1881 ging samenwonen met een dertig jaar jongere man. Ze werd bespot en belasterd en het leven werd haar tot een hel gemaakt. Als paria's moesten Mina en haar vriend Indië in 1883 verlaten om een nieuw leven te beginnen in Italië.
Een gedetailleerd onderzoek in de Indische pers tussen 1877 en 1883 laat van dit beeld weinig over. Mina Kruseman was een bijzondere vrouw met uitgesproken en omstreden ideeën, maar ze wist zich prima te handhaven in de koloniale samenleving. Ze hàd een dertig jaar jongere minnaar, maar ze slaagde er op een ingenieuze manier in om dat voor anderen verborgen te houden. Tot het einde toe is Mina Kruseman heel goed in staat geweest om zich als werkende vrouw in Indië te handhaven.
Anders dan tot nu toe is aangenomen, zijn de Indische jaren van Mina Kruseman het tegendeel van een mislukking geweest. Ze is een voorbeeld geweest voor andere Indische vrouwen en haar invloed op de vrouwenbeweging in Nederlands-Indië strekte zich uit tot aan het begin van de twintigste eeuw.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 1: Index to the Public Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1814-1849

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 2: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1825-1839

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.