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R. van Albada and Theodore G.Th. Pigeaud

Ruim 90 miljoen mensen spreken Javaans. Het Javaans is de grootste streektaal van Indonesië. Dit woordenboek is een een uitbreiding van de uitgave van 2007, die ongeveer 6.000 nieuwe woorden en vertalingen bevatte. In deze druk zijn dat er circa 20.500. Het aantal artikelen is gegroeid tot meer dan 55.000. Daarmee overtreft dit woordenboek alle tot op heden verschenen Javaanse woordenboeken.
In de huidige uitgave zijn alle spreektaalopnames uit 1996 verwerkt, steekproeven van dialecten uit gebieden die reiken van Serang in het westen tot Malang in het oosten. Verder zijn er romanteksten in verwerkt en stukken poëzie, vooral uit het gedicht Centhini.Tenslotte zijn de inzendingen van een romanwedstrijd uit 2010 allemaal in het woordenboek verwerkt.
Een ander belangrijk verschil met de vorige druk is dat alle artikelen nu op grondwoord gesorteerd staan, zoals gebruikelijk in een wetenschappelijk woordenboek. Veel gebruikers vinden dit prettiger dan de methode-Pigeaud waar bij woorden met een voorvoegsel eenvoudig onder de beginletter van dat voorvoegsel stonden. Nu staat bijvoorbeeld panerus onder het grondwoord, terus. Waar dat voor de gebruiker onduidelijkheid zou kunnen geven, staat een verwijzing, zodat ook de beginnende javanicus gemakkelijk iets kan opzoeken.

Mijn aardse leven vol moeite en strijd

Raden Mas Noto Soerota: Javaan, dichter, politicus, 1888-1951

Series:

R.B. Karels

In Mijn aardse leven vol moeite en strijd reconstrueert René Karels het leven van Noto Soeroto (1888-1951), een bijzondere Javaan van adellijke afkomst die in 1906 naar Nederland komt om te studeren, een Nederlandse vrouw ontmoet, twee zonen en een dochter krijgt en in 1932 zonder zijn gezin teleurgesteld terugkeert naar Java.
Noto Soeroto's leven vormt een aaneenschakeling van ups en downs. Hij is de bejubelde schrijver van zeven dichtbundels, de bevlogen ijveraar voor de toenadering van oost en west en de onvermoeibare strijder voor de ontwikkeling van Java. Maar hij is ook de uitgever-boekhandelaar in voortdurende geldnood en de gedesillusioneerde politicus, gewantrouwd en verguisd door zijn landgenoten, omdat hij zich tegen het militante nationalisme verzet.
Terug op Java, waar de steun voor het nationalisme inmiddels sterk is gegroeid, verbindt hij zich aan de vorst van het Mangkoenegarase huis in Solo, die hij twintig jaar eerder in Den Haag had leren kennen. Ook hier wacht hem het isolement. Noch door de nationalisten, noch door de aanhangers van het kolonialisme wordt hij vertrouwd. Nog éénmaal ziet hij zijn vrouw en kinderen, wanneer hij in 1937 in het gevolg van de vorst meereist naar Nederland ter gelegenheid van het huwelijk van Juliana en Bernhard. Maar ook hierna vertrekt hij alleen. De Tweede Wereldoorlog doet het gezin van Noto Soeroto voorgoed uiteenvallen. Pas in november 1951, een dag voor zijn overlijden, ziet Noto Soeroto in Solo zijn jongste zoon weer.
Noto Soeroto: Puisi dan Politik Anti Kemerdekaan

Vervlogen verwachtingen

De teloorgang van Nieuw-Guinea in 1961-1962

Frans H. Peters

Vervlogen verwachtingen is het relaas van een hooggeplaatste bestuursambtenaar in Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea die de overdracht van Nederlands ‘laatste kolonie in de Oost’ aan de Republiek Indonesië van zeer nabij meemaakte. Als ooggetuige doet Frans H. Peters verslag van de uitvoering van het plan-Bunker, dat op 15 augustus 1962 door Nederland, Indonesië en de Verenigde Naties werd ondertekend. Nederland zou Nieuw-Guinea, na een tussenbestuur van de Verenigde Naties, aan Indonesië overdragen.
De Papoea’s waren in dit plan niet gekend en hun verontwaardiging was groot toen het tot hen doordrong dat het Indonesisch bestuur aanstaande was. Zij staakten en demonstreerden, maar op 1 oktober 1962 begon het korte tussenbestuur van de Verenigde Naties. De auteur schetst een indringend beeld hoe Papoea’s en Nederlanders in Nieuw-Guinea op de overdracht reageerden.
In Vervlogen verwachtingen werkt een Nederlandse bestuursambtenaar samen met Papoea’s in ontwikkelingsprojecten, strijdt hij met hen voor democratisering, maar moet hij uiteindelijk op pijnlijke en emotionele wijze afscheid nemen van Nieuw-Guinea.

Various Authors & Editors

Archive of the State Commission for Slave Emancipation in the Netherlands Colonies, 1853-1856
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Background
Although slavery had been abolished in the British colonies as early as 1833, it persisted in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies and particularly their West Indies colonies of Surinam and the Antilles, which were plantation economies. No serious voices were raised for emancipation in either government circles or public opinion until the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s classic Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the United States in 1852. Questions in the Dutch Parliament concerning the colonial budget for 1854 led the government to appoint a State Commission in November 1853 to investigate the situation of the slave population in the colonies and propose appropriate measures. Former minister of the Colonies and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies, J.C. Baud, was named chairman and the members were drawn from the colonial civil service, parliament itself and representatives of commercial interests involved in slavery, including plantation owners.
The commission gathered material, heard witnesses and eventually produced two reports in September 1855 (on Surinam) and July 1856 (on the West Indies islands and West Africa, the Gold Coast, then still a Dutch colony) after which it was disbanded. The legislation the commission proposed remained, however, without immediate effect and the government and parliament would continue to wrestle with the question of slave emancipation until slavery was finally abolished on 1 July 1863.

The archive
The commission’s archive contains minutes of its meetings, correspondence, documentation assembled on the condition of the slaves in the various colonies, memoranda and interim reports by members and non-members. It has now been microfilmed by Moran Micropublications in cooperation with the National Archives of the Netherlands. The micropublication includes the two reports and their appendices, which were printed for parliament but never published, as well as a memorandum against the reports written on behalf of the slave owners of St. Martin in the West Indies.

Marieke Bloembergen

De geschiedenis van de politie in Nederlands-Indië: Uit zorg en angst beschrijft de geschiedenis van de koloniale politie in Nederlands-Indië tussen 1897 en 1942. Enkele kwesties staan daarbij centraal, zoals de betekenis van de politie voor de koloniale staat en de rol van het geweld dat zij gebruikte. Met als belangrijkste vraag: wat was er koloniaal aan koloniale politie?
De moderne koloniale politie in Nederlands-Indië was het product van angst en zorg. De angst van de Europeanen voor de inheemse wereld in beweging; de zorg voor het zedelijk welzijn van de plaatselijke bevolking. De politie was niet alleen bedoeld voor controle en repressie, maar ook voor een koloniaal beschavingsoffensief. In de besluitvorming over het politieapparaat hadden Indonesiërs intussen geen deel. In de uitvoering wel: aan het begin van de jaren dertig werd de koloniale politie voor 93 procent bemand door inheems personeel.
Co-publicatie met Uitgeverij Boom, Amsterdam.

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

The Colonial Economy in the Netherlands Indies.
Part 1: The Commission to Investigate the Sugar Manufactories on Java, 1854-1857

Short background
In the early 1830s the Dutch introduced the “cultuurstelsel” (cultivation system) into their East Indies colony of Java. This system amounted to forcing the native Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops, in particular sugar and coffee, to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company ( Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and by the early 1850s circumstances such as new famines and decreasing sugar prices and increasing beet-sugar production led the minister of the Colonies to order an extensive investigation into the system of government sugar cultivation in Java. A commission headed by the former inspector of cultivations, G. Umbgrove, was appointed by the governor-general to accomplish that task by a decision of 8 December 1853. After nearly four years of continuous work, which met with resistance from various quarters among the “residents” (district governors) whose cooperation was necessary to carry out the research, they produced a voluminous report with many appendices on 14 September 1857. The commission was disbanded in February 1858. The report and accompanying documentation were then sent to the director of cultivations and later the Council of the Indies for their advice and was submitted to the minister in The Hague by the governor-general in February 1859. In June 1860 he issued new principles for the government’s sugar cultivations and in 1862 the report and appendices were also sent to Parliament as background information for the debate on the ministry’s budget for 1863. Parliament decided to have the report and some of the appendices printed for its own use (only a few copies are extant in the Netherlands). Dissatisfaction with the cultivation system remained and it was gradually abolished. The Agrarian Law of 1870, which made the establishment of private enterprises in the Indies possible, was a decisive moment in the process. A more extensive history of the Commission and its activities in Dutch by archivist H.B.N.B. Adam can be found below on pages 11-18. It also includes lists of the colonial officials of this period, the vagaries of the documents in the ensuing years, including details of what was printed by parliament, and the principles he followed in compiling his inventory.

The collection
Besides the report itself (inventory number 1 below, in clear-hand manuscript), the collection contains a major series of descriptions and statistics (called “monographs” by the Commission) for all the sugar manufactories in 13 residencies on Java. These documents contain a wealth of information, not only on sugar cultivation itself, but also on the social situation of the native population in the sugar-producing areas and form the core of this archive. They were never printed and are available only in manuscript (see inventory numbers 10-197 below). They are arranged by residency and divided by Adam into two sections, the monograph itself (inv. nos. 10-103) and the answers by the residents to the so-called “twelve questions” about the cultivations posed by the governor-general (inv. nos. 104-197).

In addition to these, other appendices cover objections to and complaints about the system ( bezwaren) from the indigenous population, colonial officials and holders of the government sugar-cultivation contracts (Appendix S, inv. nos. 199-211). These are also arranged by residency and are extant in both the printed and manuscript versions (indicated by hs. for handschrift). Other appendices concern the Commission’s conclusions (inv. nos. 212-214), proposals (nos. 215-227, also never printed), and summaries of the situation in each residency (nos. 228-240). Various numbers reproduce circulars, model contracts, models for the research to be carried out, and overviews and tables concerning surface area cultivated, yields and other matters (nos. 2-9, 198, 241). The availability of this valuable, but insufficiently known source material on microfiche will excite broad interest among historians of colonialism and other scholars.

Various Authors & Editors

The Colonial Economy in the Netherlands Indies
Part 2: The Commission for Industrial Development in the Netherlands Indies, 1915-1926

Short background
In the early 1830s the Dutch introduced the “cultuurstelsel” (cultivation system) into their East Indies colony of Java. This system amounted to forcing the native Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops, in particular sugar and coffee, to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company ( Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and by the early 1850s circumstances such as new famines and decreasing sugar prices and increasing beet-sugar production led the minister of the Colonies to order an extensive investigation into the system of government sugar cultivation in Java. A commission headed by the former inspector of cultivations, G. Umbgrove, was appointed by the governor-general to accomplish that task by a decision of 8 December 1853. After nearly four years of continuous work, which met with resistance from various quarters among the “residents” (district governors) whose cooperation was necessary to carry out the research, they produced a voluminous report with many appendices on 14 September 1857. The commission was disbanded in February 1858. The report and accompanying documentation were then sent to the director of cultivations and later the Council of the Indies for their advice and was submitted to the minister in The Hague by the governor-general in February 1859. In June 1860 he issued new principles for the government’s sugar cultivations and in 1862 the report and appendices were also sent to Parliament as background information for the debate on the ministry’s budget for 1863. Parliament decided to have the report and some of the appendices printed for its own use (only a few copies are extant in the Netherlands). Dissatisfaction with the cultivation system remained and it was gradually abolished. The Agrarian Law of 1870, which made the establishment of private enterprises in the Indies possible, was a decisive moment in the process. A more extensive history of the Commission and its activities in Dutch by archivist H.B.N.B. Adam can be found below on pages 11-18. It also includes lists of the colonial officials of this period, the vagaries of the documents in the ensuing years, including details of what was printed by parliament, and the principles he followed in compiling his inventory.

The collection
Besides the report itself (inventory number 1 below, in clear-hand manuscript), the collection contains a major series of descriptions and statistics (called “monographs” by the Commission) for all the sugar manufactories in 13 residencies on Java. These documents contain a wealth of information, not only on sugar cultivation itself, but also on the social situation of the native population in the sugar-producing areas and form the core of this archive. They were never printed and are available only in manuscript (see inventory numbers 10-197 below). They are arranged by residency and divided by Adam into two sections, the monograph itself (inv. nos. 10-103) and the answers by the residents to the so-called “twelve questions” about the cultivations posed by the governor-general (inv. nos. 104-197).

In addition to these, other appendices cover objections to and complaints about the system ( bezwaren) from the indigenous population, colonial officials and holders of the government sugar-cultivation contracts (Appendix S, inv. nos. 199-211). These are also arranged by residency and are extant in both the printed and manuscript versions (indicated by hs. for handschrift). Other appendices concern the Commission’s conclusions (inv. nos. 212-214), proposals (nos. 215-227, also never printed), and summaries of the situation in each residency (nos. 228-240). Various numbers reproduce circulars, model contracts, models for the research to be carried out, and overviews and tables concerning surface area cultivated, yields and other matters (nos. 2-9, 198, 241). The availability of this valuable, but insufficiently known source material on microfiche will excite broad interest among historians of colonialism and other scholars.

Snellen om namen

De Marind Anim van Nieuw-Guinea door de ogen van de missionarissen van het Heilige Hart, 1905-1925

Raymond Corbey

In 1905 stichtten de Tilburgse Missionarissen van het Heilig Hart hun eerste missiepost bij de Marind Anim aan de zuidwestkust van Nieuw-Guinea. Ze werden getuige van de snelle, dramatische teloorgang van een oude cultuur, waarvan ze de diepzinnige kosmologie, de complexe initiatieceremonies, de spectaculaire kunst en de intensieve koppensnellerij gedetailleerd vastlegden in woord en beeld. ‘Het zijn echte mensen, verstandige mensen, met een heerlijke taal, ongeschreven literatuur, smaak voor het goede en schone’, schreef de ene missionaris. ‘Hoe diep, onpeilbaar diep de mensen hier gevallen zijn’, ‘walgelijk’, ‘beesten zijn er nog achtenswaardig bij’, schreef een andere. Verbijstering en fascinatie, bestrijding en bestudering gingen hand in hand.
Raymond Corbey kreeg toestemming de bijzondere foto’s uit het archief van de congregatie te publiceren. Met deze ruimschoots toegelichte, unieke foto’s vormt Snellen om namen een document voor iedereen die geïnteresseerd is in de geschiedenis en cultuur van Nieuw-Guinea.