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Gwynaeth McIntyre

As political power in Rome became centered on the emperor and his family, a system of honors and titles developed as one way to negotiate this new power dynamic. Classified under the modern collective heading ‘imperial cult’ (or emperor worship or ruler cult), this system of worship comprises religious rituals as well as political, economic, and social aspects. In this article, Gwynaeth McIntyre surveys the range of ancient literary sources and modern scholarly debates on how individuals became gods in the Roman world. Beginning with the development of exceptional honors granted to Julius Caesar and his deification, she traces the development of honors, symbols, and religious rituals associated with the worship of imperial family members. She uses case studies to illustrate how cult practices, temples, and priesthoods were established, highlighting the careful negotiation required between the emperor, imperial family, Senate, and populace in order to make mortals into gods.

Enlightening Europe on Islam and the Ottomans

Mouradgea d’Ohsson and His Masterpiece

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Carter Vaughn Findley

Mouradgea d’Ohsson’s Tableau général de l’Empire othoman offered the Enlightenment Republic of Letters its most authoritative work on Islam and the Ottomans, also a practical reference work for kings and statesmen. Profusely illustrated and opening deep insights into illustrated book production in this period, this is also the richest collection of visual documentation on the Ottomans in a hundred years. Shaped by the author’s personal struggles, the work yet commands recognition in its own totality as a monument to inter-cultural understanding. In form one of the great taxonomic works of Enlightenment thought, this is a work of advocacy in the cause of reform and amity among France, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.

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Celia Chazelle

The Codex Amiatinus and its “Sister” Bibles examines the full Bibles (Bibles containing every scriptural text that producers deemed canonical) made at the northern English monastery of Wearmouth–Jarrow under Abbot Ceolfrith (d. 716) and the Venerable Bede (d. 735), and the religious, cultural, and intellectual circumstances of their production. The key manuscript witness of this monastery’s Bible-making enterprise is the Codex Amiatinus, a massive illustrated volume sent toward Rome in June 716, as a gift to St. Peter. Amiatinus is the oldest extant, largely intact Latin full Bible. Its survival is the critical reason that Ceolfrith’s Wearmouth–Jarrow has long been recognized as a pivotal center in the evolution of the design, structure, and contents of medieval biblical codices.

Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies

Studies on Diplomacy and Diplomatics

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Edited by Frédéric Bauden and Malika Dekkiche

Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies offers an up-to-date insight into the diplomacy and diplomatics of the Mamluk sultanate with Muslim and non-Muslim powers. This rich volume covers the whole chronological span of the sultanate as well as the various areas of the diplomatic relations established by (or with) the Mamluk sultanate. Twenty-six essays are divided in geographical sections that broadly respect the political division of the world as the Mamluk chancery perceived it. In addition, two introductory essays provide the present stage of research in the fields of, respectively, diplomatics and diplomacy. With contributions by Frédéric Bauden, Lotfi Ben Miled, Michele Bernardini, Bárbara Boloix Gallardo, Anne F. Broadbridge, Mounira Chapoutot-Remadi, Stephan Conermann, Nicholas Coureas, Malika Dekkiche, Rémi Dewière, Kristof D’hulster, Marie Favereau, Gladys Frantz-Murphy, Yehoshua Frenkel, Hend Gilli-Elewy, Ludvik Kalus, Anna Kollatz, Julien Loiseau, Maria Filomena Lopes de Barros, John L. Meloy, Pierre Moukarzel, Lucian Reinfandt, Alessandro Rizzo, Éric Vallet, Valentina Vezzoli and Patrick Wing.

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Edited by Cilliers Breytenbach and Christoph Markschies

The chapters in this volume cover all aspects of the work of Adolf Deissmann (1866–1937). Following his main works, the authors highlight crucial aspects and impulses from his philological work on the New Testament, including the interpretation of Paul, Light from the Ancient East, the social status of the first Christians, and the lexicography of the New Testament. His background in the Lutheran Church of Hessen-Nassau, his contribution to the ecumenical movement together with Nathan Söderblom and through the Evangelische Wochenbriefe during World War II, and his role as rector of the Berlin University in 1930/1931 are also discussed. The contributions illustrate that notwithstanding his ecumenical engagement, Deissmann never gave up his scholarly work. The essays trace the influence of his philological and historical work among his students and place contemporary debates on Deissmann as philologist and theologian in their historical context.

Dieser Band widmet sich in neun Einzelbeiträgen der gesamten Breite des Schaffens von Adolf Deissmann (1866–1937). Entlang der Hauptwerken werden wesentliche Aspekte und Impulse aus seiner philologisch orientierten Arbeit am Neuen Testament neu gewürdigt (Interpretation der Paulusbriefe, Licht vom Osten, „Unterschichtenthese“, neutestamentliche Lexikographie etc.). Daneben geht es um seine Herkunft aus der Evangelischen Kirche in Hessen-Nassau, um sein Wirken in der Ökumene am Beispiel der Beziehung zu Nathan Söderblom und der Arbeit an den Evangelischen Wochenbriefen im Ersten Weltkrieg sowie um seine Rolle als Rektor der Berliner Universität von 1930 bis 1931. Die Beiträge zeigen, dass Deissmann trotz seines ökumenischen Engagements seine wissenschaftliche Arbeit nicht aufgegeben hat. Die Aufsätze gehen den Wirkungen seiner philologisch-historischen Arbeit unter seinen Schülern nach und stellen die zeitgenössischen Debatten um den Philologen und Theologen Deissmann in ihren historischen Kontext.

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Edited by Jeroen Temperman, T. Jeremy Gunn and Malcolm D. Evans

As the tensions involving religion and society increase, the European Court of Human Rights and the Freedom of Religion or Belief is the first systematic analysis of the first twenty-five years of the European Court's religion jurisprudence. The Court is one of the most significant institutions confronting the interactions among states, religious groups, minorities, and dissenters. In the 25 years since its first religion case, Kokkinakis v. Greece, the Court has inserted itself squarely into the international human rights debate regarding the freedom of religion or belief. The authors demonstrate the positive contributions and the significant flaws of the Court's jurisprudence involving religion, society, and secularism.

Robert Grosseteste and the 13th-Century Diocese of Lincoln

An English Bishop’s Pastoral Vision

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Philippa Hoskin

In this book Philippa Hoskin offers an account of the pastoral theory and practice of Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln 1235-1253, within his diocese. Grosseteste has been considered as an eminent medieval philosopher and theologian, and as a bishop focused on pastoral care, but there has been no attempt to consider how his scholarship influenced his pastoral practice.
Making use of Grosseteste’s own writings – philosophical and theological as well as pastoral and administrative – Hoskin demonstrates how Grosseteste’s famous interventions in his diocese grew from his own theory of personal obligation in pastoral care as well as how his personal involvement in his diocese could threaten well-developed clerical and lay networks.

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Edited by Marianne Bøe

This volume of Annotated Legal Documents on Islam in Europe covers Norway and consists of an annotated collection of legal documents affecting the status of Islam and Muslims. The legal texts are published in the original Norwegian language while the annotations and supporting material are in English. By legal documents are meant the texts of legislation, including relevant secondary legislation, as well as significant court decisions. Each legal text is preceded by an introduction describing the historical, political and legal circumstances of its adoption, plus a short paragraph summarising its content. The focus of the collection is on the religious dimensions of being Muslim in Europe, i.e. on individuals' access to practise their religious obligations and on the ability to organise and manifest their religious life.

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Edited by Eric F. Mason and Edmondo F. Lupieri

The seventeen studies in Golden Calf Traditions in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam explore the biblical origins of the golden calf story in Exodus, Deuteronomy, and 1 Kings, as well as its reception in a variety of sources: Hebrew Scriptures (Hosea, Jeremiah, Psalms, Nehemiah), Second Temple Judaism (Animal Apocalypse, Pseudo-Philo, Philo, Josephus), rabbinic Judaism, the New Testament (Acts, Paul, Hebrews, Revelation) and early Christianity (among Greek, Latin, and Syriac writers), as well as the Qur’an and Islamic literature. Expert contributors explore how each ancient author engaged with the calf traditions—whether explicitly, implicitly, or by clearly and consciously avoiding them—and elucidate how the story was used both negatively and positively for didactic, allegorical, polemical, and even apologetic purposes.

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Nina Nikki

Guided by awareness of the problematic relationship between polemical text and history, Opponents and Identity in Philippians seeks to establish a historical context for the letter to the Philippians. The study re-evaluates the relationship between Paul and the Jerusalem-based Christ-believing community from the time of the Jerusalem meeting and the Antioch incident. A more detailed analysis centers on how this relationship is reflected in Philippians. The book argues that Paul was continuously on problematic terms with the Jerusalem community, which means that they are the Jewish Christ-believing opponents referred to at several places in Philippians as well. With the help of the social identity approach (SIA), the book illustrates how Paul engages in identity formation through polemical rhetoric in his last letter.