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Kaoru Kiyosawa and Donna Gerdts

This book offers a comprehensive view of the morphology, syntax, and semantics of applicatives in Salish, a language family of northwestern North America. Applicative constructions, found in many polysynthetic languages, cast a semantically peripheral noun phrase as direct object. Drawing upon primary and secondary data from twenty Salish languages, the authors catalog the relationship between the form and function of seventeen applicative suffixes. The semantic role of the associated noun phrase and the verb class of the base are crucial factors in differentiating applicatives. Salish languages have two types of applicatives: relationals are formed on intransitive bases and redirectives on transitive ones. The historical development and discourse function of Salish applicatives are elucidated and placed in typological perspective.

Time, Tense and Aspect in Early Vedic Grammar

Exploring Inflectional Semantics in the Rigveda


Eystein Dahl

This book takes a fresh look at the relationship between aspect, tense and mood in Early Vedic, the language of the Rigveda. Although numerous studies have examined the functional range of individual verbal categories in this language, this work is the first attempt to approach this problem from an overall, systemic perspective. With insights from formal semantics and linguistic typology, the author demonstrates that aspect represents a grammatically relevant semantic dimension on a par with tense in the Early Vedic verbal system, thereby indicating that the language has preserved an aspectual opposition similar to the one found in Homeric Greek. Apart from these general findings, the book provides a theoretical framework designed for exploring inflectional semantics in dead languages.


Daniel Petit

The Baltic languages (Lithuanian, Latvian, Old Prussian) are well known for their archaic structure, but their contribution to Indo-European linguistics has hitherto often been underestimated. The aim of this book is to give a thorough survey of some of the major issues of Baltic linguistics. It consists of five chapters, devoted, respectively, to the problems of Baltic dialectology, to the development of the Baltic accentual system, to the fate of the neuter gender in Baltic, to the reconstruction of the Baltic verbal system and, finally, to the syntax of clitic forms in Baltic.

Linguistics and Archaeology in the Americas

The Historization of Language and Society


Edited by Eithne B. Carlin and Simon van de Kerke

The contributors to this volume, an international group of leading specialists, guide us through different aspects of the study of Amerindian languages and societies that lie at the heart of the extensive and multi-facetted work of Willem Adelaar, the forerunning specialist in Native American studies of Meso and South America, and Professor of Amerindian Studies at Leiden University. The contributors focus on three larger regions, the Andes, Amazonia, Meso-America and the Circum-Caribbean region, giving us a state of the art overview of current linguistic and archaeological research trends that illuminate the dynamicity and historicity of the Americas, in migratory movements, contact situations, grouping and re-grouping of identities and the linguistic results thereof. This book is a must-have for all scholars of the American continent.


Melanie Malzahn

This book presents a synchronic and diachronic study of all verbal classes and categories of the
Tocharian branch of Indo-European. It lists all attested Tocharian verbal forms, together with
semantic and etymological information. The material has been subject to careful philological
evaluation and incorporates unedited or unpublished texts of the Berlin, London, and Paris
collections. In addition, this study consistently takes into account the linguistic variation within the Tocharian B language and the relative chronology of texts. Moreover, Tocharian offers crucial evidence for the reconstruction of the PIE verbal system, and is also of interest to the general linguist for the interaction of voice and valency.

Les modalités en français

La validation des représentations


Laurent Gosselin

Le langage permet de communiquer des représentations, mais toujours énoncées selon un mode de validation/invalidation particulier, comme nécessaires, possibles, probables, douteuses, souhaitables, regrettables, obligatoires, redoutées, etc. Ce sont là les modalités linguistiques (au sens large). Elles sont exprimées par des marqueurs grammaticaux, des constructions syntaxiques, par l’ensemble des lexèmes, qui sont porteurs de divers types d’évaluations ; ou elles sont inférées sur la base de connaissances encyclopédiques et/ou discursives.
Cet ouvrage présente une théorie générale des modalités, appliquée au français moderne, sous la forme d’un système de règles. Dans ce cadre, sont proposées des solutions nouvelles pour résoudre des problèmes classiques de philosophie du langage (sémantique de croire/savoir, opacité référentielle, etc.) et de grammaire française (valeur de la négation, de l’interrogation, emploi du subjonctif, etc.).
Quoique le point de vue soit proprement linguistique, les relations avec les domaines connexes (pragmatique, sémiotique, rhétorique, analyse des discours, philosophie du langage, logique …) sont systématiquement précisées, dans le but d’éclairer cette dimension essentielle du jugement que constitue la validation des représentations.

The Progressive in Modern English

A Corpus-Based Study of Grammaticalization and Related Changes


Svenja Kranich

This book constitutes the first full-length diachronic treatment of the English progressive from Old English to Present-day English, focusing on the crucial phase of its grammaticalization between the 17th and 20th centuries. It uses data from the British component of ARCHER-2 (A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers, version 2) to uncover the details of this long-term grammaticalization process, tracing the development of the construction from a stylistic device to a fully-fledged aspect marker. Illustrated by a wealth of examples, the work offers new results concerning the preferred linguistic environments and the development of the functions of the progressive. In contrast to previous studies, the author shows that there are certain restrictions to context expansion in grammaticalization. She argues convincingly that the persistent reluctance of the progressive to occur in certain contexts does not point to incomplete grammaticalization, but can instead be explained as a product of its particular functions. The author also challenges the tenet that grammaticalization is generally accompanied by subjectification.


Anna Feldman and Jirka Hana

While supervised corpus-based methods are highly accurate for different NLP tasks, including morphological tagging, they are difficult to port to other languages because they require resources that are expensive to create. As a result, many languages have no realistic prospect for morpho-syntactic annotation in the foreseeable future. The method presented in this book aims to overcome this problem by significantly limiting the necessary data and instead extrapolating the relevant information from another, related language. The approach has been tested on Catalan, Portuguese, and Russian. Although these languages are only relatively resource-poor, the same method can be in principle applied to any inflected language, as long as there is an annotated corpus of a related language available. Time needed for adjusting the system to a new language constitutes a fraction of the time needed for systems with extensive, manually created resources: days instead of years.
This book touches upon a number of topics: typology, morphology, corpus linguistics, contrastive linguistics, linguistic annotation, computational linguistics and Natural Language Processing (NLP). Researchers and students who are interested in these scientific areas as well as in cross-lingual studies and applications will greatly benefit from this work. Scholars and practitioners in computer science and linguistics are the prospective readers of this book.


Edited by Estelle Moline and Carl Vetters

Cet ouvrage propose de jeter un nouveau regard sur des questions qui sont au cœur des problématiques de linguistique française étudiés dans les Cahiers Chronos. Plusieurs auteurs étudient des questions de temps et d’aspect (Apothéloz & Nowakowska, Haas & Huyghe, Lauze, Lebas-Fraczak, Moline, Provôt ; Deslés & Vinzerich) ou des emplois modaux (Engel ; Forsgren & Sullet-Nylander, Lansari, Morency, Patard & Vermeulen). D’autres étudient la temporalité dans le discours (Bres, de Saussure), adoptent une perspective diachronique (De Mulder, Vetters) ou abordent la temporalité du point de vue de l’enseignement du FLE (Barbazan). La diversité des approches réunies dans ce volume fera avancer les débats et sera une source pour de nouvelles contributions.


Amal Marogy

This book presents a comprehensive portrait of the Kitāb Sībawayhi. It offers new insights into its historical and linguistic arguments and underlines their strong correlation. The decisive historical argument highlights al-Ḥīra’s role, not only as the centre of pre-Islamic Arabic culture, but also as the matrix within which early Arab linguistics grew and developed. The Kitāb’s value as a communicative grammar forms the crux of the linguistic argument. The complementarity of syntax and pragmatics is established as a condition sine qua non for Sībawayhi’s analysis of language. The benefits of a complementary approach are reflected in the analysis of nominal sentences and related notions of ibtidā’ and definiteness. The pragmatic principle of identifiability is uncovered as the ultimate determiner of word order.