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The European Union Returns Directive and its Compatibility with International Human Rights Law

Analysis of Return Decision, Entry Ban, Detention, and Removal

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Izabella Majcher

The book undertakes a throughout human rights assessment of the EU Returns Directive. The overarching human rights framework which circumscribes states’ prerogatives in the context of expulsion builds upon obligations derived from the principle of non-refoulement; the right to life, respect for family and private life, effective remedy, basic social rights; the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment; and protection against arbitrary detention and collective expulsion. Based on the assessment of the Directive against this human rights framework, Izabella Majcher discusses several protection gaps in the Directive’s provisions which may result in violations of migrants’ rights and highlights how the Directive’s rules should be implemented to comply with member states’ human rights obligations. Informed by this assessment, the book discusses draft amendments to the Directive, proposed by the European Commission in September 2018.

Forgotten Diplomacy

The Modern Remaking of Dutch-Chinese Relations, 1927–1950

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Vincent K.L. Chang

In this meticulously researched volume, Vincent Chang resurrects a near-forgotten chapter of Dutch-Chinese ties to narrate how World War II, China’s civil war, and Indonesia’s decolonization reshaped and ultimately redefined their age-old bilateral relationship.
Drawing on a wealth of hitherto-unexplored archives, the book explains how China’s rise on the global stage and the Netherlands’ simultaneous decline as a Pacific power informed events in Dutch-controlled Indonesia (and vice versa) and prompted a complete recalibration of bilateral ties, culminating in the Netherlands’ recognition of the People’s Republic and the inception of its “One-China” policy.
Presenting insightful analyses of power dynamics and law, this book is of interest to historians and China specialists as well as scholars of international relations and international law.

Edited by Donald R. Rothwell, Matthew Zagor and Imogen Saunders

Launched in 1965, the Australian Year Book of International Law (AYBIL) is Australia’s longest standing and most prestigious dedicated international law publication.
The Year Book aims to uniquely combine scholarly commentary with contributions from Australian government officials. Each volume contains a mix of scholarly articles, invited lectures, book reviews, notes of decisions by Australian and international courts, recent legislation, and collected Australian international law state practice.
It is a valuable resource for those working in the field of international law, including government officials, international organisation officials, non-government and community organisations, legal practitioners, academics and other researchers, as well as students studying international law, international relations, human rights and international affairs.
It focuses on Australian practice in international law and general international law, across a broad range of sub-fields including human rights, environmental law and legal theory, which are of interest to international lawyers worldwide. Volume 36 features an Agora on the 2018 Timor Sea Treaty and Conciliation between Australia and Timor Leste.

Between Criminalization and Protection

The Italian Way of Dealing with Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking within the European and International Context

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Vincenzo Militello and Alessandro Spena

This volume is devoted to the dark side of human mobility, that is migrant smuggling, and, linked with it, human trafficking. Both subjects will be mainly treated from an Italian perspective; however, due to their having a generally transnational character, the analysis will necessarily require that international and supranational actions/measures also be taken into account. Moreover, the legal perspective will be supplemented by the phenomenological/criminological one, through which the authors try to provide the work with a realistic dimension aimed at grasping the practical aspects of both migrant smuggling and human trafficking emerging from the different ways in which such crimes are de facto committed.

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Santiago Wortman Jofre

In Corporate Criminal Liability and Compliance Management Systems: A Case Study of Spain, Santiago Wortman Jofre offers a case study where he examines the way in which Spain understands and implements Compliance Management Systems. Corporate criminal liability has become a matter of controversy in civil law countries since it challenges the traditional principle of societas delinquere non potest, by which corporations cannot be held criminally responsible.
However, corporations have taken a new position in the world’s political agenda, as evidenced by the 2017 G20’s High Level Principles on the Liability of Legal Persons for Corruption. The new trend in criminal law advocates for the criminal responsibility of legal persons and pushes for the implementation of Compliance Management Systems as deterrent for corporate criminality. Santiago Wortman Jofre then presents evidence on the role of criminal justice and the importance of positive stimuli requirements as effective incentives to drive companies to implement compliance programs.

Liberalism, Constitutional Nationalism, and Minorities

The Making of Romanian Citizenship, c. 1750–1918

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Constantin Iordachi

This book documents the making of Romanian citizenship from 1750 to 1918 as a series of acts of national self-determination by the Romanians, as well as the emancipation of subordinated gender, social, and ethno-religious groups. It focuses on the progression of a sum of transnational “questions” that were at the heart of North-Atlantic, European, and local politics during the long nineteenth century, concerning the status of peasants, women, Greeks, Jews, Roma, Armenians, Muslims, and Dobrudjans. The analysis emphasizes the fusion between nationalism and liberalism, and the emancipatory impact national-liberalism had on the transition from the Old Regime to the modern order of the nation-state. While emphasizing liberalism's many achievements, the study critically scrutinizes the liberal doctrine of legal-political “capacity” and the dark side of nationalism, marked by tendencies toward exclusion. It highlights the challenges nascent liberal democracies face in the process of consolidation and the enduring appeal of illiberalism in periods of upheaval, represented mainly by nativism. The book's innovative interdisciplinary approach to citizenship in the Ottoman and post-Ottoman Balkans and the richness of the sources employed, appeal to a diverse readership.

Constantin Iordachi teaches at the Central European University, Budapest. He has published widely on citizenship, nationalism and fascism. His most recent project is Martyrdom to Purification: The Fascist Faith of the Legion `Archangel Michael' in Romania, 1927-1941 (London: Routledge, forthcoming 2019).

Between Criminalization and Protection

The Italian Way of Dealing with Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking within the European and International Context

Vincenzo Militello and Alessandro Spena

Abstract

This double issue is focused on migrant smuggling and human trafficking. Both subjects are mainly treated from an Italian perspective; however, since these crimes have a generally transnational character, the analysis also takes international (UN) and supranational (EU) measures into account. Moreover, in both parts, the legal perspective is supplemented by the phenomenological/criminological one (based on both media reports and judicial case-studies), so as to grasp the practical aspects emerging from the different ways in which migrant smuggling and human trafficking are de facto committed: in particular, the links between these two and other crimes are underscored, as well as the involvement of criminal organizations in their perpetration. Finally, both parts are driven by a human rights-oriented approach, which gives relevance to dignity of persons as a fundamental meta-value of our legal systems.

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Constantin Iordachi