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The Practice of Independent Accountability Mechanisms (IAMs)

Towards Good Governance in Development Finance

Edited by Owen McIntyre and Suresh Nanwani

Jelena Madir

In Sanctions Regimes of Multilateral Development Banks: What Process is Due, Jelena Madir examines the type of due process rights that should characterise sanctions regimes of multilateral development banks (MDBs). By benchmarking against comparable regimes, including the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and administrative tribunals of international organisations, the author analyses the extent to which MDBs’ sanctions regimes should be bound by the rules of law, analogous to those of national judicial bodies, and the level of due process and transparency that should be required from these ever-evolving regimes that are generally immune from judicial review.

The book should be of use to scholars, practicing lawyers and legal advisers in government and international organisations, as well as to lawyers whose practice concerns global sanctions and MDBs’ privileges and immunities.

Good Governance and Modern International Financial Institutions

AIIB Yearbook of International Law 2018


Edited by Peter Quayle and Xuan Gao

This first volume of the AIIB Yearbook of International Law (AYIL), edited by Peter Quayle and Xuan Gao, is based upon the inaugural 2017 AIIB Legal Conference, both titled, Good Governance and Modern International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Following a Preface by the General Counsel of the AIIB and General Editor of AYIL, Gerard Sanders, and an Introduction by the Editors, this volume of AYIL draws upon expertise from other IFIs, international law and governance practitioners, and eminent academics. It is divided into three parts to reflect a series of dimensions to the good governance of IFIs. Firstly, the role of the membership of IFIs as expressed through their executive governance organs. Second, the legal basis of governance of IFIs. And third, the interaction around governance between IFIs and external stakeholders.
This volume concludes with the text of the 2017 AIIB Law Lecture, delivered by the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and Legal Counsel, Miguel de Serpa Soares on the subject of ‘The Necessity of Cooperation between International Organizations’ and a summary report on the proceedings of the 2017 AIIB Legal Conference.
The first volume of AYIL was launched at the Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the AIIB in Mumbai, India, June 2018.


C. King Chanetsa

An effective capital markets industry has existed in South Africa for over 120 years. As recently as 2015, South Africa was considered the best regulator of securities in the world. The fall out from the GFC contained lessons for all markets, but not to the same extent. In the pursuit of G20 inspired conformity, aspects of the South African reform agenda may therefore appear replicative of initiatives in other jurisdictions and, consequently, uncritical in parts. In light of the fall to forty sixth place in the world in securities regulation ranking and some uncertainty in respect of the extent and shape of the reform process, C. King Chanetsa reviews activities in South Africa along the busy securities and capital markets value chain, and considers the continuing and emerging regulatory and supervisory framework.

Kaj Hobér


One of the objectives underlying the Belt and Road Initiative is to improve energy co-operation in areas such as energy infrastructure and exploration and development of energy resources. Most Central Asian States are situated along the Silk Road Economic Belt. At the same time those States are members of the Energy Charter Treaty. This treaty provides a multilateral framework for co-operation and investment protection in the energy sector. This contribution explores three aspects of the ECT (definition of investment and investor, dispute settlement and ECT jurisprudence, and energy transit) which could facilitate for China to achieve its energy objectives within the Belt and Road Initiative, were China to become a member of the ECT.

Hao Zhang


Most Chinese overseas energy investments financed by China’s development banks flow into fossil fuel extraction and coal-fired plants. The carbon intensity of Chinese foreign energy investments imposes environmental and social costs on host states. Building on the literature related to the environmental reform of the World Bank, this article critically analyses the carbon-intensive projects backed by China’s development finance in Central Asia. It shows that China’s energy investments in the region will face increasing carbon-related regulatory risks. So far, the transition towards a more environmentally-driven development policy has been limited in China. However, the increasing importance of climate regulations in host countries is likely to induce fundamental changes to the project-screening process of China’s energy development finance.

Anatole Boute


As the world’s largest energy consumer, China’s energy security policies have significant implications for global, regional and national energy governance. However, the legal dimension of China’s external energy security remains understudied, with most attention in the energy law literature focused on EU and US energy security. This Special Issue studies the legal aspects of Chinese external energy cooperation by focusing on energy trade and investment under the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ – the Chinese foreign policy concept aiming to promote regional and global economic integration through infrastructure interconnectivity. Three research questions govern the Special Issue. How does China’s external energy policy rely on, and impact on, regional and global energy market governance? How does China seek to protect its foreign energy investments? How does China’s external energy policy impact on host countries’ energy and investment laws?

Marc Bungenberg and Angshuman Hazarika


Energy investments from China have been flowing into the European Union (EU) over the last decade at an increasing rate. Part of these investments are made under China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and involve Chinese State-owned Enterprises (SOEs). This flow of investments into critical sectors such as energy infrastructure and generation has raised considerable concern over their potential national security implications and prompted the European Commission to prepare new legislation to screen foreign investments in critical sectors, including energy. The new EU regulations complement existing investment screening mechanisms in a number of EU member states, and the application of EU merger control law. This article looks at the different screening and clearance mechanisms which Chinese investments in the energy sector may have to pass in the EU and aims to show how these screening mechanisms are used in practice.