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25 Books from Leiden That Changed the World
Books That Made History highlights twenty-five books published in Leiden or written by a Leiden scholar or alumnus, that have a strong connection to Leiden’s academic history, from the founding of Leiden University in 1575 to the present day. These books have a lasting, global impact on our way of thinking, and are relevant up to this day. The books are described from a contemporary perspective in order to elicit the reader's sense of wonder that the contemporary ideas and insights anchored in the books, are inextricably linked to the publication in which this idea was first made public to the world.
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In Königstein im Taunus gründeten vertriebene katholische Priester aus den ehemaligen Ostgebieten nach 1945 eine Bildungsstätte, in der die Frömmigkeitskultur an die nächsten Generationen weitergegeben werden sollte. Hier entwickelte sich in den 1950er Jahren ein Kommunikationszentrum, in dem eine Hochschule Priester für den Osten ausbildete und vielfältige Medien über die Lage hinter dem Eisernen Vorhang informierten. Von Königstein ging die Kapellenwagenmission aus, die katholische Gläubige in der westdeutschen Diaspora aufsuchte. Nostalgische Rückbesinnung verband sich mit der Errichtung eines modernen Tagungsbaus. Seit den 1970er Jahren gerieten die Königsteiner Unternehmungen in eine grundlegende Krise. Mit der Gründungsgeneration starben die auf den Osten bezogene Mentalität und letztlich auch die Königsteiner Anstalten. Das Ende des Kalten Kriegs verschob die Nachkriegszeit der katholischen Vetriebenen endgültig in die Erinnerungskultur.
Public Porticoes, Small Baths, Shops/Workshops, and ‘Middle Class’ Houses in the East Mediterranean
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This book examines neglected architectural decoration from the late antique city of the East Mediterranean. It addresses the omission in scholarship of discussion about the embellishment of non-monumental secular buildings (public porticoes, small public baths, shops/workshops, and non-elite houses). The finishing of these structures has been overlooked at the expense of more lofty buildings and remains one of the least known aspects of the late antique city.
The book surveys the archaeological evidence for decoration in the region, with the maritime sites of Ostia and Ephesus selected as case studies. Drawing upon archaeological, written, and visual sources, it attempts to reconstruct how such buildings appeared to late antique viewers and investigates why they were decorated as they were.
Synthesizing Generalized Evolution Theory
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Do social systems evolve similarly to biological ones and societies similarly to organisms? For some time now, an interdisciplinary paradigm has been developing in this regard: the Generalized Evolution Theory. After pointing out differences between biological and cultural evolution, as well as different inheritance strategies, the book proposes a philosophy of science classification of the different approaches in this vast and ever-growing field of research. It leads from generalized microevolution to generalized macroevolution and to their synthesis. As evolution favors groups with high internal cohesion, it will also favor strategies and reward agents responsible for this cohesion. In the long run, generalized evolution selects those populations that exhibit a higher density of interaction.
Eine Perspektiverweiterung der Komparatistik an Fallbeispielen religiöser Bildung in Frankreich
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Transnationale Forschungszugänge sind im Horizont der Globalisierung und Europäisierung der Bildung von großer Bedeutung – auch für die Historische Religionspädagogik.
Bislang dominieren komparative Zugänge in der Historischen Religionspädagogik, um andere Nationen wie Frankreich zu untersuchen. Dieser klassische Forschungsansatz ist von der Notwendigkeit eines tertium comparationis, also einem gemeinsamen Phänomen oder einer vergleichbaren Struktur, geprägt. Die exemplarische Untersuchung der Grenzregion Elsass-Mosel zeigt, dass transnationale Forschungsperspektiven die Methodologie der Historischen Religionspädagogik erweitern können. Dazu werden ausgewählte Quellen von 1885 bis 2013 mit Perspektiven der Kulturtransferforschung, Theorie des Dritten Raumes und Translation Studies analysiert. Ihre Betrachtung lässt auch Überlegungen zu Themen wie Stereotypen, Machtverhältnissen und Übersetzungsnotwendigkeiten religiöser Sprache für den gegenwärtigen Religionsunterricht zu.
Die Idee der Energie in der französischen Spätaufklärung (1770–1820). Aus dem Französischen von Heinz Thoma
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Die erstmalige Übersetzung eines Standardwerks zur Geschichte der Idee der Energie im Übergang vom 18. zum 19. Jahrhundert.
Diese Ideengeschichte löst eingeführte Sichtweisen auf das Zeitalter der Aufklärung auf. Sie konstatiert am Beispiel der Energie einen Bruch mit der Kultur des Klassizismus, zieht neue Verbindungslinien zur Romantik, löst tradierte Gegensätze von Idealismus und Materialismus, Tugend und Libertinage, Empfindsamkeit und Grausamkeit auf und erlaubt einen neuen Blick auf die Epoche der Terreur.
This study presents a historical and conceptual reconstruction of nationality law and offers an analysis of the issues involved, now and in the future. The author discusses definitions of nationality and citizenship in international law and in the law of certain regional organisations, in particular the European Union. He investigates whether these definitions have evolved and, if so, how; whether residence has taken on a more prominent role alongside nationality; and whether the EU can be taken as a model for other regional organisations in defining resident status.
The Hadhrami Arabs in the Netherlands East Indies and Indonesia (1900-1950)
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In In Search of Identity: The Hadhrami Arabs in the Netherlands East Indies and Indonesia (1900-1950) Huub de Jonge discusses changes in social, economic, cultural and national identity of Arabs originating from Hadhramaut (Yemen) in the Netherlands East Indies and Indonesia. Within the relatively isolated and traditionally oriented Hadhrami community, all sorts of rifts and divisions arose under the influence of segregating colonial policies, the rise of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation, and the colonial war. The internal turmoil, hardly noticed by the outside world, led to the flourishing of new ideas, orientations, loyalties and ambitions, while traditional values, customs, and beliefs were called into question.
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This pathbreaking collection explores a new concept in world literature studies. Going beyond the binary opposition of “major” and “minor” literatures, the ultraminor encompasses the literatures of smaller but vibrant regional and linguistic communities. Using cases as varied as the literatures of Malta, Mauritius, and the Faroe Islands, contemporary Nahuatl novels, Kafka in Prague, and Shakespeare in Naples, the ten essays in this volume take up questions of scale and circulation, the interplay of languages and dialects, and ultraminor writers’ resistance to translation and their reliance on it. Ultraminor World Literatures will be of interests to students and scholars of comparative and world literature and to anyone concerned with the ongoing life of unique cultural communities around the world.
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As an intriguing but little understood language group within the Tibeto-Burman family, Qiangic languages are widely reported to have evidentiality, the grammatical means of expressing information source. How does this category function in this language group? Does it show any common features across these languages? And does it have any unique properties? Drawing on data from over a dozen languages and dialects, and cast within an informative typological framework, this study is the first attempt to answer these questions. It is found that evidentiality in Qiangic languages can be classified into three broad types. The study further demonstrates that modern systems cannot be inherited from Proto-Qiangic, and it also reveals certain features of the reported evidential that seem to be typologically rare.