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Alice Richir

Qui se cache derrière le « Je » et ses mensonges ? Écriture du fantasme plonge au cœur de la littérature contemporaine de langue française pour désigner comme fantasmes, au sens psychanalytique, les projections imaginaires qui peuplent les romans de Jean-Philippe Toussaint et Tanguy Viel. Prenant appui sur la définition du fantasme de Sigmund Freud et sur l’identification de sa logique par Jacques Lacan, la fiction fantasmatique est envisagée comme un moyen pour un narrateur à l’identité diffractée de faire récit. Cette nouvelle logique narrative est étudiée à la lumière des dispositifs modernes de l’image – photographie et cinéma, essentiellement –, dont Toussaint et Viel s’inspirent pour déconstruire les cadres représentatifs traditionnels et interroger le rapport entre identification et récit aujourd’hui.

Who lies behind the "I" and its deceitful nature? Écriture du fantasme delves into the heart of contemporary French-language literature to psychoanalytically designate as fantasies the imaginary projections which populate the novels of Jean-Philippe Toussaint and Tanguy Viel. Fantasized fiction is regarded as a means for a narrator with a diffracted identity to exist through the narration, based on how Sigmund Freud defined fantasy and on how Jacques Lacan deciphers its logic. This new sense of narration is studied through modern imagery devices – essentially photography and cinema. Toussaint and Viel use these as inspiration to deconstruct the traditional representative frameworks and question the current correlation between identification and narrative.

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Edited by Maciej Witek and Iwona Witczak-Plisiecka

Normativity and Variety of Speech Actions embraces papers focused on the performative dimension of language. While all texts in the volume recognize speech primarily as a type of action, the collection is indicative of the multifaceted nature of J.L. Austin’s original reflection, which invited many varied research programmes. The problems addressed in the volume are discussed with reference to data culled from natural conversation, mediated political discourse, law, and literary language, and include normativity, e.g. types of norms operative in speech acts, speaker’s intentions and commitments, speaker-addressee coordination, but also speech actions in discursive practice, in literal and non-literal language, performance of irony, presupposition, and meaningful significant silence.

Contributors are: Brian Ball, Cristina Corredor, Anita Fetzer, Milada Hirschová, Dennis Kurzon, Marcin Matczak, Marina Sbisà, Iwona Witczak-Plisiecka, Maciej Witek, and Mateusz Włodarczyk.

Selfhood and Appearing

The Intertwining

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James Mensch

What is the relation between our selfhood and appearing? Our embodiment positions us in the world, situating us as an object among its visible objects. Yet, by opening and shutting our eyes, we can make the visible world appear and disappear—a fact that convinces us that the world is in us. Thus, we have to assert with Merleau-Ponty that we are in the world that is in us: the two are intertwined. Author James Mensch employs the insights of Jan Patočka’s asubjective phenomenology to understand this double relationship of being-in. In this volume, he shows how this relation constitutes the reality of our selfhood, shaping our social and political interactions as well as the violence that constantly threatens to undermine them.

Animal Rationality

Later Medieval Theories 1250-1350

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Anselm Oelze

In Animal Rationality: Later Medieval Theories 1250-1350, Anselm Oelze offers the first comprehensive and systematic exploration of theories of animal rationality in the later Middle Ages. Traditionally, it was held that medieval thinkers ascribed rationality to humans while denying it to nonhuman animals. As Oelze shows, this narrative fails to capture the depth and diversity of the medieval debate. Although many thinkers, from Albert the Great to John Buridan, did indeed hold that nonhuman animals lack rational faculties, some granted them the ability to engage in certain rational processes such as judging, reasoning, or employing prudence. There is thus a whole spectrum of positions to be discovered, many of which show interesting parallels with contemporary theories of animal rationality.

Rationality and Decision Making

From Normative Rules to Heuristics

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Edited by Marek Hetmański

Rationality and Decision Making: From Normative Rules to Heuristics offers a broad overview of both classic and very recent discussions concerning rationality and strategies of individual and group decision making. They are considered from a methodological, ethical, sociological, historical, cultural as well as an evolutionary perspective. Decision making, both rational and irrational, is treated in its complexity as an algorithmic, heuristic and intuitive process. The volume analyzes the theoretical and practical aspects of decision making in individual intentional endeavors and group or institutionalized undertakings. The analyses are mostly theoretical but they also appeal to empirical studies, proposed by philosophers and cognitive scientists who have studied logical, cognitive, biological, social and evolutionary aspects of human rationality.

Contributors include María José Frápolli, Marek Hetmański, Jan F. Jacko, Artur Koterski, Agnieszka Lekka-Kowalik, Sofia Miguens, Ángeles J. Perona, Manueal de Pinedo, João Alberto Pinto, Krzysztof Polit, Marcin Rządeczka, Rui Sampaio da Silva, Joanna Sokołowska, Barbara Trybulec, Marcin Trybulec, Neftalí Villanueva, Monika Walczak, Jan Winkowski, Anna Wójtowicz, Jesús Zamora-Bonilla, and António Zilhão.

Autonome Praxis und intelligible Welt

Die transzendental-praktische Freiheit in Kants Lehre vom höchsten Gut

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Walid Faizzada

In Autonome Praxis und intelligible Welt: Die transzendental-praktische Freiheit in Kants Lehre vom höchsten Gut Walid Faizzada reconstructs Kant’s theory of freedom in light of modern debates about determinism and free will. Faizzada argues that the Kantian position is neither a kind of compatibilism nor incompatibilism. The theory of freedom includes the specific concept of intellectual causality as the power to act by principles and for practical reasons. The most innovative feature constitutes the self-determination of rational agents regarding the idea of the noumenal world. Kant’s philosophical approach to freedom culminates in the concept of so-called transcendental-practical freedom which prepares the ground for morality.

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Edited by Grzegorz Maziarczyk and Joanna Klara Teske

Explorations of Consciousness in Contemporary Fiction is a collection of essays examining the potential of the contemporary English-language novel to represent and inquire into various aspects of the human mind. Grounded in contemporary literary theory as well as consciousness studies, the essays consider both narrative techniques by means of which writers attempt to render various states of consciousness (such as multimodality in digital fiction or experimental typography in post-traumatic narratives), and novelistic interpretations of issues currently being investigated by neurobiologists, cognitive scientists and philosophers of the mind (such as the adaptive value of consciousness or the process of self-integration by means of self-narration). The volume thus offers critical reflection upon the novel’s cognitive accomplishment in this challenging area.

Contributors are: Nathan D. Frank, Judit Friedrich, Justyna Galant, Marta Komsta, Péter Kristóf Makai, Ajitpaul Mangat, Grzegorz Maziarczyk, James McAdams, Daniel Panka, Barbara Puschmann-Nalenz, Joanna Klara Teske, Lloyd Issac Vayo, Dóra Vecsernyés, Sylwia Wilczewska

Apparaître

Essai de philosophie phénoménologique

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Denis Seron

L’intentionnalité — cette singulière propriété qu’a l’esprit d’être dirigé vers le monde — est aujourd’hui un des problèmes les plus débattus dans le domaine de la philosophie de l’esprit. Dans Apparaître : Essai de philosophie phénoménologique, Denis Seron entend montrer que l’approche phénoménologique peut contribuer positivement à ce débat. Il propose de voir dans l’intentionnalité une notion fondamentalement phénoménologique et, en conséquence, de la définir en termes d’apparence. Il esquisse ensuite, sur cette base, une théorie de l’apparence, dont il suggère enfin qu’elle fournit un cadre approprié pour d’autres problèmes comme ceux de l’unité de la conscience, de l’inconscient, etc.

Intentionality — the mind’s directedness towards the world — is currently one of the most debated issues in the area of the philosophy of mind. In Apparaître: Essai de philosophie phénoménologique, Denis Seron aims to show that the phenomenological approach can contribute positively to this debate. He proposes to understand the notion of intentionality as a basic phenomenological notion and thus to define it in terms of appearances. On the basis of this, he then sketches a theory of appearance which he suggests is best suited to address a range of other issues such as the unity of consciousness, the unconscious, etc.

Anthropologische Differenz und animalische Konvenienz

Tierphilosophie bei Thomas von Aquin

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Tobias Davids

This study examines Thomas Aquinas’s contribution to the systematic field of animal philosophy. It applies various models from the current philosophical debate (especially from that concerning the mind of animals) as interpretative aids to tap the potential of the Thomistic approach.
Thomas draws a clear line of demarcation between animals and human beings (= anthropological difference). However, he also considers it important to work out the similarities between humans and animals, insofar as they are both so-called animalia, i.e., living beings possessing senses (= animal conformance).
His philosophical deliberations concerning animals have a methodological function as well, namely to highlight the distinct capacities of human beings. Thus, for Thomas, the reflection on animals is a key instrument in dealing with anthropological questions.

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Edited by Adrian Kuźniar and Joanna Odrowąż-Sypniewska

This volume addresses issues in epistemology, ethics and political philosophy. It contains new papers on issues such as semantic theory of truth, sandwich theory of knowledge, American pragmatism and scepticism, arguments from ignorance, infallibilism and fallibilism, justification and confirmation, Tarski’s T-schema, experimental results and ordinary truth, epistemic comparativism and experiments, epiphenomenlism and eliminativism about the mental, the identity theory of truth, thoughts and facts, metaontological maximalism and minimalism, morality and rights, aggregation of value judgements and aggregation of preferences, conditional and unconditional ethics, the role of the theory of evolution in moral epistemology, global and international political community, Rawls' views on cosmopolitanism and global justice, international distributive justice.

Contributors are: Tomasz Bigaj, Krzysztof Brzechczyn, Tadeusz Buksiński, Robin Cameron, Jan B. Deręgowski, Nigel Dower, Adam Grobler, Jesper Kallestrup, Adrian Kuźniar, Justyna Miklaszewska, Joanna Miksa, Joanna Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Katarzyna Paprzycka, Krzysztof Posłajko, Wlodek Rabinowicz, John Skorupski, Leslie Stevenson, Piotr Szałek, Tadeusz Szubka, Joseph Ulatowski, Jan Woleński, Rafał Wonicki, Anna Wójtowicz, Renata Ziemińska