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Rethinking Private Higher Education

Ethnographic Perspectives from the Middle East and Beyond

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Edited by Daniele Cantini

Rethinking Private Higher Education takes the university as a core institution in modern nation states, which is currently undergoing a serious revision. It offers fresh insights into the actual meaning of ‘private’ in different higher education contexts, contributing to a deeper understanding of the actual effects of global policies in local contexts through ethnographies. This book explores how private universities were established, their context and history, and their changing business models and operations.
The strengths of this book are its ethnographic detail, which shows the complexity and fast changing forms of private higher education, and its reluctance to jump to simplified labelling of public and private. It is a model for further ethnographic studies of local developments in higher education.

Contributors are: Ayça Alemdaroğlu, Daniele Cantini, Carmela Chávez Irigoyen, Enrico Ille, Sylvie Mazzella, Alexander Mitterle, Annemarie Profanter, and Susan Wright.

Nūbat Ramal al-Māya in Cultural Context

The Pen, the Voice, the Text

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Carl Davila

In this unique edition, Carl Davila takes an original approach to the texts of the modern Moroccan Andalusian music tradition. This volume offers a literary-critical analysis and English translation of the texts of this nūba, studies their linguistic and thematic features, and compares them with key manuscripts and published anthologies. Four introductory chapters and four appendices discuss the role of orality in the tradition and the manuscripts that lie behind the print anthologies. Two supplements cross-reference key poetic images in English and Arabic, and provide information on known authors of the texts. This groundbreaking contribution will interest scholars and students of pre-modern Arabic poetry, muwashshaḥāt, Andalusian music traditions, Arabic Studies, orality, and sociolinguistics.

La langue berbère au Maghreb médiéval

Textes, contextes, analyses

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Mohamed Meouak

La langue berbère au Maghreb médiéval constitue un nouvel apport aux études historiques et linguistiques dans la mesure où de nombreux matériaux sur la langue berbère font l’objet d’une monographie spécifique. Plusieurs faits de langue sont reliés par une trame précise et ils sont réunis afin de mettre en relief les indices textuels puisés dans diverses sources écrites en arabe et en berbère. Dans les quatre parties du livre, il est tour à tour question des apports de la documentation narrative, de la littérature hagiographique et des textes ibadites ainsi que de l’importance des contacts entre le berbère et les langues africaines à travers la littérature narrative et l’épigraphie islamique. Ce livre a été conçu comme un essai documentaire mais également afin d’attirer l’attention des chercheurs sur la présence relativement bien documentée de la langue berbère dans les textes produits en milieu arabo-musulman du Moyen Âge à l’époque moderne.

La langue berbère au Maghreb médiéval is a new contribution to the historical and linguistic studies in that many materials on the Berber language are the subject of a specific monograph. Several facts of language are connected by an accurate frame and are gathered to highlight textual clues collected from various sources written in Arabic and Berber. The four parts of the book treat contributions of narrative documentation, hagiographical literature and Ibadi texts and the importance of contacts between Berber and African languages through the narrative literature and Islamic epigraphy. This book was conceived as a documentary essay, but also to attract the attention of researchers on the relatively well-documented presence of the Berber language in the texts produced in Arab-Muslim environment from the Middle Ages to Modern era.

Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya

The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th centuries)

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Amar S. Baadj

In Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya, Amar Baadj gives us the first comprehensive, modern study of a fascinating but little-known episode in the history of the medieval Mediterranean. This is the story of the long struggle between the Almohad caliphs of the Maghrib, the Banū Ghāniya of Majorca, and the Ayyubids for dominance of North Africa.

The author makes use of important textual sources that have been ignored as well as new archaeological evidence to challenge some of the basic assumptions about the events in question. He also successfully places these events in their wider temporal and geographical context for the first time.

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Israel Katz

Henry George Farmer (1882-1965) was a pioneering musicologist who specialized in Arab music. In 1932, he participated in the First International Congress of Arab Music in Cairo, during which he maintained a journal recording his daily activities, interactions with fellow delegates and dignitaries, and varied perambulations throughout the city. This journal, and the detailed minutes he kept for his chaired Commission on History and Manuscripts, were never published. They reveal aspects and inner-workings of the Congress that have hitherto remained unknown. The illustrations and photos contained therein, as well as additional photos that were never seen, provide visual documentation of the Congress’s participants and musical ensembles.

Law and the Islamization of Morocco under the Almoravids

The Fatwās of Ibn Rushd al-Jadd to the Far Maghrib

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Camilo Gómez-Rivas

Law and the Islamization of Morocco under the Almoravids. The Fatwās of Ibn Rushd al-Jadd to the Far Maghrib investigates the development of legal institutions in the Far Maghrib during its unification with al-Andalus under the Almoravids (434-530/1042-1147). A major contribution to our understanding of the twelfth-century Maghrib and the foundational role played by the Almoravids, it posits that political unification occurred alongside urban transformation and argues that legal institutions developed in response to the social needs of the growing urban spaces as well as to the administrative needs of the state. Such social needs included the regulation of market exchange, the settlement of commercial disputes, and the privatization and individualization of property.

Early Ibāḍī Theology

Six kalām texts by ‘Abd Allāh b. Yazīd al-Fazārī

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Edited by Wilferd Madelung and Abdulrahman Al-Salimi

Early Ibāḍī Theology presents the critical edition of six Arabic theological texts recently discovered in two manuscripts in Mzāb in Algeria dating from the middle of the 8th century. The texts were sent by their author, the prominent Kūfan Ibāḍī kalām theologian ‘Abd Allāh b. Yazīd al-Fazārī to North Africa where he had a large following in the Ibāḍī community later known as the Nukkār. They constitute the earliest extant body of Muslim kalām theology and are vital for the study of the initial development of rational theology in Islam. The sophisticated treatment of the divine attributes in these texts indicates that this subject developed considerably earlier in Islamic theology than previously accepted in modern scholarship.

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Nabil Matar

British Captives from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1563-1760 provides the first study of British captives in the North African Atlantic and Mediterranean, from the reign of Elizabeth I to George II. Based on extensive archival research in the United Kingdom, Nabil Matar furnishes the names of all captives while examining the problems that historians face in determining the numbers of early modern Britons in captivity.

Matar also describes the roles which the monarchy, parliament, trading companies, and churches played (or did not play) in ransoming captives. He questions the emphasis on religious polarization in piracy and shows how much financial constraints, royal indifference, and corruption delayed the return of captives. As rivarly between Britain and France from 1688 on dominated the western Mediterranean and Atlantic, Matar concludes by showing how captives became the casus belli that justified European expansion.

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Michael Greenhalgh

The French invaded Algeria in 1830, and found a landscape rich in Roman remains, which they proceeded to re-use to support the constructions such as fortresses, barracks and hospitals needed to fight the natives (who continued to object to their presence), and to house the various colonisation projects with which they intended to solidify their hold on the country, and to make it both modern and profitable. Arabs and Berbers had occasionally made use of the ruins, but it was still a Roman and Early Christian landscape when the French arrived. In the space of two generations, this was destroyed, just as were many ancient remains in France, in part because “real” architecture was Greek, not Roman.

Le pouvoir de guérir

Mythe, mystique et politique au Maroc

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Zakaria Rhani

Au Maroc, les mythes fondateurs des cultes et rituels de guérison illustrent de manière probante les processus d’élaboration des significations et des dynamiques du pouvoir dans le passé proche et leurs articulations actuelles. Des dynamiques qui se déploient en termes généalogiques, initiatiques et en des capacités socialement reconnues de susciter une communication avec le monde surnaturel. L’analyse centrée sur la confrontation entre saints et rois permet, par ailleurs, d’élargir à la dimension nationale, et au-delà, le rapport, hiérarchique, de conflit et d’articulation entre charisme personnel et charisme sharifien. Le mythe et ses expressions rituelles ouvrent, ainsi, les possibilités du renouvellement sociopolitique par les marges, voire même, dans l’actualité, sous couleur d’une révolution à l’horizon d’un millénarisme du califat.

In Morocco, the founding myths of healing cults and rituals illustrate conclusively the elaboration of the symbolism and dynamics of power, both in local and national contexts. These dynamics unfold specifically in terms of genealogical representations and mystical initiations, as well as in socially-recognized capacities to communicate with the supernatural. The analysis centered on the confrontation of saints and kings permits the expansion, to the national level and beyond, of the hierarchical tensions between personal charisma and sharifian charisma. Thus, the myth and its ritual expressions open up possibilities for socio-political renewal by the margins, or even more a renewal, taking place presently, in the form of a revolutionary millenarianism.