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Counter-Hegemonic Teaching

Counter-Hegemonic Perspectives for Teaching Social Studies, the Foundations, Special Education Inclusion, and Multiculturalism

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Lee Elliot Fleischer

Inside the Child's Head

Histories of Childhood Behavioural Disorders

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Jennifer Laurence

Inside the Child’s Head traces the emergence of biomedical diagnoses of behavior disorders in children. It provides a new critical counterpoint to the kind of ‘myth-or-reality’ debate on childhood disorders. Social policy debates about ADHD for example, inasmuch as they are conducted around essentialist dichotomies of ‘the biological’ and ‘the social’, lead into a philosophical cul-de-sac. The authors suggest that understanding and acting upon childhood disorders lie not so much in elucidating grand philosophical and etiological questions, or in pinning our hopes on new scientific discovery of what is going on ‘in the child’s head’, as in the historical possibilities of the present-day make-up of this ‘inside’.
The book provides an account of the historical contexts in which the biomedical and social bases for disorders have been formulated, showing that both sets of understandings draw on common phenomena and use similar instruments to reach their conclusions. Outlined are a series of formative locations whence particular and localized governmental problems to do with managing discrete populations rub up against fairly inauspicious technical solutions, focused on pivotal events in specific institutional and social spaces. These include changes to the spatial organization of classroom; changes in the science of policing social space; the war-time development and extended clinical deployment of the electroencephalograph; the hand-in-hand emergence of computer and cognitive science; and the effects of the computer itself on the way we conceptualize brain-space. The book treats the appearance of the child with behavior disorder as an achievement of various agencies of science-and-government, rather than an initial encounter for discovering scientific truths.

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Edited by Julie Allan, Jenny Ozga and Geri Smith

Social Capital, Professionalism and Diversity is a response to the challenges faced by teachers and other public sector professionals in attempting to manage an increasingly diverse population, whilst simultaneously being subjected to public scrutiny through measures of performance.
Social capital has increasingly been seen by policy makers and academics as a possible resource for education, allowing children and young people, and the professionals who work with them, to do better as a result of having strong networks, relationships and trust. There has, however, been little attention to how social capital might actually be used by professionals within educational contexts or to the benefits of enhanced social capital for children and young people, their families, and the professionals themselves.
The contributors to this volume provide commentaries on what is known about social capital and its use in educational contexts; the engagement of teachers and other professionals with diversity; and social capital and diversity among children, young people and families.
Social Capital, Professionalism and Diversity will appeal to teacher educators and policymakers with concerns about the challenges faced by teachers and other public sector professionals and with an interest in how social capital might enable an effective response to diversity in educational contexts. The book will be of particular interest and use to student and beginning teachers in responding to diversity as they develop their own professional identities and to practising teachers with an interest in pursuing new forms of professional renewal.

A Transformatory Ethic of Inclusion

Rupturing concepts of disability and inclusion

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Jayne Clapton

Inclusion, is a topical notion which underpins contemporary human service practices and policies within Western Judeo-Christian societies. Inclusion is most often considered within socio-historical and socio-political contexts, whereby technical and legislative responses are sought. However, this book explores the question, "How ethically defensible is the notion of inclusion in relation to people with intellectual disability?" The book contends that inclusion is a multifaceted, complex concept in a dualistic and dichotomous relationship with exclusion. It is argued that historical and contemporary conceptualisations of exclusion for people with intellectual disability have been constructed from various philosophical and theological matrices imbued with particular values about personhood. Furthermore, it is proposed that the ethical significance of inclusion and exclusion in the context of intellectual disability is defined and perpetuated by expressions of a particular socio-symbolic order underpinned by patriarchy and kyriarchy, and subjected to two controlling ethics - an Ethic of Normalcy and an Ethic of Anomaly. Inclusion and exclusion are conceived as phenomena relating to how membership is defined, legitimated, or repelled by concealed, occluding boundaries acting within a patriarchal socio-ethical fabric. The book argues that Ethical Inclusion is only possible through the rupture of these boundaries by a conceptual tool, 'A Transformatory Ethic of Inclusion'. This conceptual instrument of rupture embraces the scholarship of feminist ethics and feminist theology. Such a rupture requires examining the ways traditional ethical frameworks themselves have conceptually diminished and devalued the authenticity of people with intellectual disability. A concept of integrality becomes imaginable. Conceptual analysis is framed using a crafting metaphor of a patchwork quilt which is infused with narrative; and by which, such an ethical exploration is undertaken, and impaired, traditional ethical theorising is confronted and transformed.

Unimaginable Bodies

Intellectual Disability, Performance and Becomings

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Anna Catherine Hickey-Moody

Unimaginable Bodies radically resituates academic discussions of intellectual disability. Through building relationships between philosophy, cultural studies and communities of integrated dance theatre practice, Anna Hickey-Moody argues that dance theatre devised with and performed by young people with and without intellectual disability, can reframe the ways in which bodies with intellectual disability are known. This proposition is considered in terms of classic philosophical ideas of how we think the mind and body, as Hickey-Moody argues that dance theatre performed by young people with and without intellectual disability creates a context in which the intellectually disabled body is understood in terms other than those that pre-suppose a Cartesian mind-body dualism. Taking up the writings of Spinoza and Deleuze and Guattari, Hickey-Moody critiques aspects of medical discourses of intellectual disability, arguing that Cartesian methods for thinking about the body are recreated within these discourses. Further, she shows that Cartesian ways of conceiving corporeality can be traced through select studies of the social construction of intellectual disability. The argument for theorising corporeality and embodied knowledge that Hickey-Moody constructs is a philosophical interpretation of the processes of knowledge production and subjectification that occur in integrated dance theatre. Knowledge produced within integrated dance theatre is translated into thought in order to explore the affective nature of performance texts. This book is essential reading for those interested in theories of embodiment, disability studies and dance.
Cover Image: Ziggy Kuster, Gigibori: Invaders of the soul, Photography David Wilson ã Restless Dance Company

We've Scene it All Before

Using Film Clips in Diversity Awareness Training

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Brian C. Johnson

A revolutionary tool for corporate and academic trainers, We’ve Scene It All Before harnesses the power of mainstream Hollywood film to enhance educational sessions about diversity and social justice. This resource manual offers practical guidance on how to effectively use the concept of difference as a starting point towards true inclusion.
Seasoned and novice trainers will appreciate the suggested strategies and best practices on facilitating diversity dialogues, which are coupled with a set of twenty-five definitions that introduce and raise awareness of the personal and systemic nature of difference, discrimination, and power. Workshops on human relations and workplace diversity must move beyond the superficial “celebration” of diversity to the dismantling of systems of privilege and oppression that create environments where members of the organization are disenfranchised and disempowered.
Using clips from a variety of genres of mainstream film allows the trainer to make intercultural concepts visible and offers a way for us to challenge our own values and assumptions. Participants will enjoy the presentations more as they view some of their favorite films in a whole new way; using this familiar medium creates a common basis for entering the discussions all the while giving us the permission to talk about serious and often controversial subjects.
We’ve Scene It All Before: Using Film Clips in Diversity Awareness Training is a learning tool which will be tremendously useful in reducing resistance and increasing thoughtful cross-cultural dialogue.

Challenges for Inclusion

Educational and Social Studies From Britain and the Indian Sub-Continent

Edited by Christopher Adam Bagley and Gajendra K. Verma

This book reviews current controversies and dilemmas in the educational and social development of children and adolescents in Britain, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Britain is contrasted with the Indian Sub-Continent because in theory at least, Britain has policies which should enable young people to be fully integrated within the educational system, whatever the degree of their original disability, while in the Indian Sub-Continent such educational opportunities are denied to many children because of problems of social structure, values, and poverty. The rights of the disabled to full inclusion are emphasized in two chapters by Sharon Rustemier. But a chapter by Dame Mary Warnock whose report to government designed the system for educational inclusion, shows that British policies for inclusion of the disabled are not working. The chapter by Bagley outlines the 'poverty of education' in Britain, which means that in a highly stratified society many children—both poor and disabled - are excluded from mainstream education by decisions based on school policies and neighbourhood disadvantage.
India in contrast is a culture in which inclusion of the disabled within educational systems is marred by economic poverty, as well as deliberate policies which deny Dalits (formerly known as 'Untouchables’) access to many kinds of educational opportunity. Nevertheless, there are pockets of good practice in India including the legal framework for action, which chapters by Jha and Jaya identify.
The history of educational initiatives for social and educational of the very poor of Bangladesh are reviewed in detail since these initiatives illustrate the work of a unique NGO (BRAC—the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) which offers advancement for the poorest of the poor in a nation that is significantly poorer than India. Nepal too is also one of the poorest nations on earth, and we offer a detailed account of the trafficking of women and girls from Nepal into Indian brothels. These girls are permanently excluded from all social and educational networks, and their plight poses a major challenge for the movement for the social and educational inclusion of all children.

The Construction of Disability in our Schools

Teacher and Parent perspectives on the experience of labelled students

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Kathryn Underwood

This book is about the meaning of disability in schools. The experience of children with disabilities in schools has undergone substantial change over the last twenty years (and more) with many children who would have once been living in institutions now going to school alongside their peers. With this monumental shift and the continuing increased participation of people with disabilities, one might wonder what disability means. In the age of institutionalisation disability referred to those people who were not able to actively participate in society. As it turns out, many of the people who were deemed unable to participate were so only because the society in which they lived had kept them from active participation through institutionalisation. In Ontario, Canada, where the author lives and works, many adults with disabilities continue to live in institutions and are also active in their communities. So it is not just the institutions that “disable” people. There are many reasons that people fall into the classification of “disabled” and for some this classification begins in an institution, often in the institution of school. This book explores the different beliefs that teachers and parents hold about disability and the types of barriers that cause disability, and how these beliefs translate into education practice.

Doing Inclusive Education Research

Foreword by Michael Apple

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Julie Allan and Roger Slee

Those attempting to research inclusive education face an enormous challenge. Not only is it a highly complex field, but it is also fraught with tensions, sometimes spilling into over into disputes between researchers over ideology. Research textbooks present research decision-making as relatively straightforward and offer little help to students and novice researchers on how to navigate complex fields such as inclusive education or understand ideology. Doing Inclusive Education Research is an attempt to lift the lid on the processes of doing research and uncovers the experiences of key researchers in the field. Len Barton, Mike Oliver, David Gillbourn, Deborah Youdell, Stephen Ball, Ellen Brantlinger, Sally Tomlinson, Mel Ainscow, Lani Florian, Alan Dyson, Suzanne Carrington, Ken Kavale, Karen Harris and Kim Cornish have all opened themselves up to scrutiny and reveal the decisions and choices they made at different points of the research process, as well as some of their concerns as they undertook the work. They also respond to the invitation to discuss the positioning of their work and offer their ‘take’ on the ideological battles. Students and all involved in researching inclusive education will find Doing inclusive education research an indispensable, as well as fascinating, insight into the research process and will gain useful advice on how to engage with this complex field.