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Herrscherideal und Herrschaftskritik bei Philo von Alexandria

Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel seiner Josephsdarstellung in De Josepho und De somniis II

Serie:

Friederike Oertelt

Die in der Arbeit vorgenomme Auslegung der Schriften De Josepho und De Somniis II von Philo von Alexandria liest die beiden gegensätzlichen Darstellungen der Josephfigur als Beitrag zum Herrschaftsdiskurs. Die ambivalenten Tendenzen der biblischen Josephfigur bilden für ihn den Ausgangspunkt am Beispiel Josephs, Strukturen sowohl tyrannischer als auch idealer Herrschaft zu untersuchen. Philos Kenntnis griechisch-hellenistischer Philosophie sowie sein Verständnis der Tora als göttlich inspiriertem Text ermöglicht ihm, den politischen Charakter auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen zu reflektieren. Die Spannung zwischen beiden Traktaten bleibt dabei bestehen und kann als bewusste Darstellung gelungener und tyrannischer Herrschaft gedeutet werden. Zugleich entwickelt Philo aus den Ambivalenzen der Josephfigur heraus ein Herrschaftskonzept, welches aufgrund des Toraverständnisses politisches Handeln aus Abhängigkeiten befreit und universale Handlungsvorgaben und Kontrollinstanzen aufzeigt.

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The exegesis of De Josepho and De Somniis II intended in this work read the two portrayals of Joseph as Philo’s contribution to the discourse on government. The ambivalent tendencies in the Joseph figure form the point of departure for Philo in using it for examining structures of tyrannical and ideal rule. Philo’s knowledge of Greek-Hellenistic philosophy and his understanding of the Torah enables him to reflect upon the political character on different levels. Thus the tension between both treatises can be interpreted as a conscious portrayal of effective and of tyrannical rule. At the same time Philo develops a concept of government out of the ambivalences of the Joseph figure, which, on the basis of the understanding of the Torah, liberates political action from dependencies and points out universal guidelines for action and the authorities responsible for control of them.

Moses und der Mythos

Die Auseinandersetzung mit der griechischen Mythologie bei jüdisch-hellenistischen Autoren

Serie:

René Bloch

In the Hellenistic period Jews regularly encountered Greek mythology in one form or another: in literature, in art, or through language. This book is the first comprehensive study of the different strategies pursued by Jewish-Hellenistic authors as they engaged with Greek myth. The principal focus of this study is on the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, but a large range of other authors from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE are also discussed. Far from limiting themselves to outright rejection, these authors often show a striking familiarity with Greek myth, which they sometimes even incorporated into Jewish myth. Ancient Jewish discourse on Greek myth was not primarily driven by apologetics, but constituted an important aspect of Jewish Hellenism.

Juden trafen in der hellenistischen Zeit regelmässig auf griechische Mythen: in der Literatur, in der Kunst oder im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch. Dieses Buch ist die erste weitgespannte Untersuchung der unterschiedlichen Strategien, die jüdisch-hellenistische Autoren in ihrem Umgang mit griechischen Mythen anwandten. Das Hauptgewicht der Untersuchung liegt auf dem jüdischen Historiker Flavius Josephus, aber eine grosse Zahl weiterer Autoren vom 3. Jh. v.Chr. bis zum 1. Jh. n.Chr. wird auch einbezogen. Diese Autoren haben griechische Mythen nicht einfach nur verworfen. Häufig zeigen sie eine bemerkenswerte Vertrautheit mit ihnen und gelegentlich gar die Bereitschaft, sie mit jüdischen Mythen zu verbinden. Der antike jüdische Diskurs über die griechischen Mythen war nicht in erster Linie von Apologetik bestimmt, sondern bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt des jüdischen Hellenismus.

Serie:

Olaf Waßmuth

Buch 1 und 2 bilden innerhalb der disparaten Sammlung der antiken Sibyllinischen Orakel ein zusammenhängendes Werk: eine historische Apokalypse, die den Bogen von der Schöpfung bis in die eschatologische Goldene Zeit spannt und dabei biblische und heidnische Mythologie harmonisiert. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert das in seiner jetzigen Gestalt klar christliche Doppelbuch. Sie rekonstruiert daraus eine vorchristliche Grundschrift, die als literarisches Zeugnis der jüdisch-heidnischen Symbiose im kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien gelesen werden kann. In seiner bearbeiteten Form ist das Doppelbuch die vermutlich älteste Sibyllenschrift aus christlicher Hand. Die Studie bietet einen detaillierten Kommentar zu der gesamten Schrift. Dabei untersucht sie auch das umfangreiche Pseudo-Phokylides-Zitat in Buch 2 sowie die Beziehungen der eschatologischen Abschnitte zur Petrusapokalypse.

Within the disparate collection of ancient Sibylline Oracles book 1 and 2 form a historical apocalypse reaching from the creation to the eschatological Golden Age. It is unique in integrating biblical and classical mythology. Although Christian in its present form, its origins have been debated for a long time. This study examines its different parts and tries to reconstruct a pre-Christian document. It interprets the original work as a literary evidence of the Jewish-pagan symbiosis in Asia Minor in the imperial period. Its adaption is probably the earliest Sibylline writing produced by Christians. The study provides a line-by-line commentary. It contains a close examination of the tradition of Pseudo-Phocylides included in the Christian document as well as a comparison with the Apocalypse of Peter.

Jenseitshoffnung in Wort und Stein

Nefesch und pyramidales Grabmal als Phänomene antiken jüdischen Bestattungswesens im Kontext der Nachbarkulturen

Serie:

Lothar Triebel

This monograph deals with two phenomena of ancient (hellenistic and roman times) Jewish burial customs: The use of the term “nefesh” for denoting a tomb-monument etc. and the use of the pyramid as a distinct feature of tomb architecture and of decoration of burial sites. Every instance of Jewish use of either the term or the pyramid will be analysed, as well as a couple of instances from neighbouring cultures and languages (especially Nabatea and Palmyra). The widespread opinion that “nefesh” denotes specifically a pyramid is to be falsified. Palestinian Jewish burial customs turn out to be deeply embedded into their semitic environment. Finally the hypothesis is advanced that the pyramid often symbolizes a concept of afterlife. About 50 plates with ca. 200 photos and drawings accompany the text.

Paulus, Die Evangelien und das Urchristentum

Beiträge von und zu Walter Schmithals. Zu seinem 80. Geburtstag herausgegeben

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Ediert von Walter Schmithals and Cilliers Breytenbach

This volume contains the author’s ‘late harvest’ from the fruits of half a century scholarly research in the fields of the New Testament. The essays on Paul oppose the view of history held by the 'Tübingen School' (F.C. Baur), and point out the importance of literary criticism for the theological interpretation of the pauline letters. The essays on the Letter to the Hebrews assign the appropriate historical place within early Christianity to this New Testament book. The essays on the synoptic gospels force the crisis of synoptic form criticism, and give convincing reasons for the alternative solution concerning the origin of the synoptic tradition. Five contributions complete the author's 'Theologiegeschichte des Urchristentums' edited 1994. In the second part various prominent German New Testament scholars engage into a discussion with Schmithals’s contributions.

Rachels Klage im antiken Judentum und frühen Christentum

Eine auslegungsgeschichtliche Studie

Serie:

Christine Ritter

Study of the exegesis of the Old Testament tradition on the matriarch Rachel. The centre of the study is Rachel’s complaint in Jeremiah 31.15-17. After an analysis of the Old Testament texts, the reception of these traditions in ancient translations in the Pseudepigrapha, in Philo of Alexandria, in Flavius Josephus as well as in the New Testament is investigated. The main part of the study is represented by source material in the Rabbinic literature. The study is concluded by an overview of the interpretation of the Rachel figure in patristic literature. The sources containing the Rachel traditions are, in part, hard to access. The source material on Rachel is presented and analyzed, in order to make the plethora of interpretations accessible to a wider audience, especially the Rabbinic interpretations.

Psalmen- und Psalter-Rezeption im Frühjudentum

Rekonstruktion, Textbestand, Struktur und Pragmatik der Psalmenrolle 11QPsᵃ aus Qumran

Serie:

Ulrich Dahmen

This volume is concerned with the great Psalms Scroll from cave 11 at Qumran as an example for the reception ("Fortschreibung") of biblical texts and books in early judaism.
After methodological considerations the scroll is examined and reconstructed entirely in its material and textual extent for the first time. Detailed analyses of the text and the structure of this work show that 11QPsᵃ developed from the final redaction of the biblical book of Psalms. In its unique text form and arrangement of Psalms it was composed in a qumranic milieu and functions as a work for a davidic figure.

Ein Bild des Judentums für Nichtjuden von Flavius Josephus

Untersuchungen zu seiner Schrift, Contra Apionem

Serie:

Gerber

Contra Apionem, the last known work by the Jewish author Flavius Josephus (38 - ca. 100 CE), is the only direct Jewish apology, that remains from antiquity. It is of special interest to us, because in its third part Josephus undertakes to explain the main ideas and laws of Judaism and its "theocratic" constitution to non-Jewish readers.
This volume gives an introduction to Contra Apionem as a whole, a German translation, and a precise analysis and interpretation of the work's third part on Judaism, especially its meaning for non-Jewish readers.
This study gives the reader access to an aspect of Josephus and to a part of his important work Contra Apionem, which, to date, have not attracted sufficient scholarly attention.

Das Frauenbild im Judentum der hellenistischen Zeit

Ein Beitrag anhand von Joseph und Aseneth

Serie:

Angela Standhartinger

Each of the two reconstructed “oldest texts” of the intertestamental work, Joseph and Aseneth, presents a consistent picture with a coherent theology, but there are considerable differences between them. The image of women in each case serves to crystallise these differences, and their analysis opens a window not only on the texts but also on their social contexts. The author develops a method which allows close study of ancient literary images of women and of their effects on ancient readers. It is shown that the different images portrayed in the two versions correspond to differing trends in the pagan and Jewish environment and in Jewish-Hellenistic interpretations of the Bible. A controversy of social and theological importance emerges.

Das Selbstverständnis der jüdischen Diaspora in der hellenistisch-römischen Zeit

Aus dem Nachlaß herausgegeben und bearbeitet von P.W. van der Horst

Serie:

van Unnik

Fifteen years after his death the last book by Willem Cornelis van Unnik (1910-1978) is now published. This great scholar presents here the results of his thorough investigation of self-definition in the Jewish diaspora of late antiquity. After an introductory chapter which includes a brief history of research, Van Unnik investigates the semantic field of the Greek term diaspora, the use of this word in the Septuagint and the New Testament, the history of the term in post-biblical Jewish and Christian writings, and the theological understanding of the term.
Van Unnik concludes that in Jewish circles living in the diaspora has always been regarded as an essentially negative and frightening phenomenon, much more so than many modern investigations would have us believe. The main text of this book. The main text of this book is completely from the pen of Van Unnik; only the footnotes were missing. The editor has added footnotes and an extensive biographical-bibliographical introduction and appendices.