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Kreative Gegensätze

Der Streit um den Nutzen der Philosophie an der mittelalterlichen Pariser Universität

Serie:

Marcel Bubert

In Kreative Gegensätze Marcel Bubert analyses the debates among medieval scholastics on the social usefulness of learned knowledge in their specific social and cultural contexts. In particular, he shows how the skepticism towards the scholars as well as the tensions between the University of Paris, the French royal court, and the citizens of Paris had profound effects on the scientific community, and led to very different views on the utility of philosophy. Some Masters responded to the expectations of society by emphasizing the autonomy of philosophical cognition. Others departed radically from this notion of science “for its own sake”, and created decidedly “practical” concepts of knowledge. The examination of these contentious relations shows how the dynamics of mutual demarcation within this “constellation” became intellectually prolific by way of generating highly original and innovative responses to the question of the utility of philosophy.

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Ediert von Sebastian Günther and Dorothee Pielow

Die Geheimnisse der oberen und der unteren Welt ( The Secrets of the Upper and the Lower World) is a substantial new collection of essays on magic in Islamic cultural history. Both comprehensive and innovative in its approach, this book offers fresh insights into an important yet still understudied area of Islamic intellectual history. The seventeen chapters deal with key aspects of Islamic magic, including its historical developments, geographical variants, and modern-day practices. The general introduction identifies and problematizes numerous sub-topics and key practitioners/theoreticians in the Arabo-Islamic context. This, along with terminological and bibliographical appendices, makes the volume an unparalleled reference work for both specialists and a broader readership. Contributors: Ursula Bsees, Johann Christoph Bürgel, Susanne Enderwitz, Hans Daiber; Sebastian Günther, Mahmoud Haggag, Maher Jarrar, Anke Joisten-Pruschke, Fabian Käs, Ulrich Marzolph, Christian Mauder, Tobias Nünlist, Khanna Omarkhali, Eva Orthmann, Bernd-Christian Otto, Dorothee Pielow, Lutz Richter-Bernburg, Johanna Schott & Johannes Thomann.

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Fedor Benevich

In Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition stellt Fedor Benevich einen Kerngedanken der Metaphysik und der Epistemologie Avicennas (gest. 1037) vor: seine Theorie der Essenz und der wissenschaftlichen Bestimmung essentieller und notwendiger Attribute. Die Studie untersucht zentrale Begriffe der avicennischen Philosophie wie Essentialität, Notwendigkeit, Universalität, Unmittelbarkeit, Primärheit und Spezifizität. Zudem wird erstmals dargelegt, wie Avicenna seine Position in Bezug auf diese Thematik im Laufe seiner Karriere entwickelte und so seinen revolutionären “konzeptionellen Essentialismus” ausarbeitete. Es wird weiterhin gezeigt, dass Avicennas Position der aristotelischen Tradition zu Teilen folgt, von dieser jedoch am zentralen Stellen abweicht, insbesondere dort, wo sich Avicenna kritisch mit den Interpretationen der „Bagdader Peripatetiker“ auseinandersetzte.

In Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition Fedor Benevich presents the key doctrine of Avicenna’s (d. 1037) metaphysics and epistemology: his theory of essence and the scientific determination of essential and necessary attributes. The book studies central notions of Avicenna’s philosophy such as essentiality, necessity, universality, immediacy, primacy, and specificity. It also provides an unprecedented account of how Avicenna’s views on these issues changed throughout his career, in arguing for his revolutionary “conceptual essentialism”. Avicenna’s position partially follows the Aristotelian tradition yet also departs from it, especially when Avicenna argues against the Baghdad Peripatetic School.

Medizin im Konflikt

Fakultäten, Märkte und Experten in deutschen Universitätsstädten des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts

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Jana Madlen Schütte

In Medizin im Konflikt, Jana Madlen Schütte analyses the status of medical doctors between university and market in the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the early modern period. Their positon initially at the universities as well as on the medical market was precarious. As the smallest faculty, medicine had to stand up to the other disciplines. Meanwhile, as participants in the medical market, the faculty members had to face competitors such as barbers, surgeons, apothecaries, and Jewish doctors. Jana Madlen Schütte explores how this situation of dual conflict affected the actions of the medical doctors and the strategies that they employed to demonstrate that their approaches were scientific as well as practical.

Al-Maqrīzīs Traktat über die Mineralien

Kitāb al-Maqāṣid al-saniyyah li-maʿrifat al-aǧsām al-maʿdiniyyah

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Ediert von Fabian Käs

Der kurze Traktat al-Maqāṣid al-saniyyah li-maʿrifat al-aǧsām al-maʿdiniyyah des berühmten ägyptischen Geschichtsschreibers al-Maqrīzī (gest. 845/1442) befasst sich mit der Klassifikation der Mineralien, ihren medizinischen Anwendungen sowie Theorien über ihre Entstehung. Käs legt hier erstmals eine kritische Textedition mit deutscher Übersetzung und ausführlichem Kommentar vor. Grundlage der Edition des arabischen Texts war in der Hauptsache ein Leidener Codex, der von al-Maqrīzī eigenhändig korrigiert und mit Glossen erweitert wurde. Ein Faksimile der Handschrift wird in diesem Band ebenfalls abgedruckt. Käs konnte nachweisen, dass der Traktat fast vollständig von den Enzyklopädien Ibn Faḍlallāh al-ʿUmarīs und al-Qazwīnīs abhängig ist. Die Inhalte der Mineralienkapitel dieser Werke lassen sich ihrerseits bis zu den frühen arabischen Naturphilosophen und ihren griechischen Vorläufern zurückverfolgen.

The short treatise entitled al-Maqāṣid al-saniyyah li-maʿrifat al-aǧsām al-maʿdiniyyah by the famous Egyptian historiographer al-Maqrīzī (d. 845/1442) deals with the classification of minerals, their medicinal uses and theories of their coming into being. Käs presents for the first time a critical edition of this text along with a German translation and a detailed commentary. The edition of the Arabic text is mainly based on the Leiden codex corrected and enlarged by al-Maqrīzī himself. A facsimile of this manuscript is also provided in this volume. Käs was able to prove that the treatise depends almost exclusively on the encyclopedias by Ibn Faḍlallāh al-ʿUmarī and al-Qazwīnī. The contents of their chapters on minerals can in turn be traced back to the early Arabic natural philosophers and their Greek precursors.

Homo animal nobilissimum (2 vols)

Konturen des spezifisch Menschlichen in der naturphilosophischen Aristoteleskommentierung des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts. Teilband 2

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Theodor W. Köhler

This volume deals with the philosophical approach of thirteenth-century masters to concrete, practical manifestations of specifically human life quantum ad naturalia in their commentaries on Aristotle's works on natural philosophy, both the genuine ones and the ones then considered genuine. It inquires into what they deemed worthy of philosophical debate regarding this topic and how they tackled it. This volume completes as Teilband II the researches initiated in a previous volume (Teilband 1) and describes the scholars' discourses on the peculiarity of human body constitution, the specifically human cognitive faculties and operations, human speech and animal vocal communication, human action and animal activity, human emotional behaviour, and human and animal ways of life. This is the first comprehensive source-based study on the subject; it draws heavely on inedited texts.

Studenten und Gelehrte

Studien zur Sozial- und Kulturgeschichte deutscher Universitäten im Mittelalter

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Rainer Schwinges

Through the foundation of the universities at Prague (1348), the Roman-German Empire caught up with and integrated itself into the European cultural space of universities, one of the consequences being a constant rise of the number of students. The studies collected in this volume analyse the acceptance and social effects of this process, comparing German and European phenomena. They concentrate on university members, students and graduates of extremely different origins, following the parameters of status, parental ties, group affiliation, and networks: crucial moments include the access to university, studies and leisure activities, the converging aspects of social and academic hierarchy and finally the application of academic expertise in different professional environments. The main focus thus lies on the medieval universities’ contribution to the creation of a modern "society of knowledge".

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Peter Moraw

Peter Moraw, a leading constitutional historian of the later middle ages, has taken a particular interest in the study of medieval universities as training grounds of Western elites. His essays collected here from widely scattered source begin with general reflections on the medieval university, are followed by 8 studies of Central and East Central centers, such as Prague, Heidelberg and Cracow, and conclude with 4 social-historical and prosopographical papers on professors, students and graduates and their careers. Appendices include a sketch of the Repertorium academicum Germanicum project, and a full list of the author’s published work.

Jochen Viehoff and Friedrich L. Bauer

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Ediert von Heinz Schott and Ilana Zinguer

This edited volume addresses important aspects of Paracelsian concepts within the context of contemporary science and literature, emphasizing the international dissemination and propagation of Paracelsian ideas during the 16th and 17th centuries. Its contributions analyse different aspects of Paracelsus's work and influence: for instance, his ideas on magic, medicine, and mantic art; his relation to the Jewish tradition, and the controversies caused by Paracelsian authors. Special attention is given to the impact of Paracelsus on the Rosicrucian movement.
This volume will be of interst to historians of medicine, literature, and culture in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Contributors include: Stephen Bamforth, Udo Benzenhöfer, Lucien Braun, Roland Edighoffer, Frank Hieronymus, Didier Kahn, Joseph Levi, Cunhild Pörksen, Heinz Schott, Joachim Telle, and Ilana Zinguer.