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Law in West German Democracy

Seventy Years of History as Seen Through German Courts

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Hugh Ridley

Law in West German Democracy relates the history of the Federal Republic of Germany as seen through a series of significant trials conducted between 1947 and 2017, explaining how these trials came to take place, the legal issues which they raised, and their importance to the development of democracy in a country slowly emerging from a murderous and criminal régime. It thus illustrates the central issues of the new republic. If, as a Minister for Justice once remarked, crime can be seen as ‘the reverse image of any political system, the shadow cast by the social and economic structures of the day’, it is natural to use court cases to illuminate the eventful history of the Federal Republic’s first seventy years.

Incorporating Indigenous Rights in the International Regime on Biodiversity Protection

Access, Benefit-sharing and Conservation in Indigenous Lands

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Federica Cittadino

Notification concerning Planned Measures on Shared Watercourses

Synergies between the Watercourses Convention and the World Bank Policies and Practice

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Salman M.A. Salman

Notification of co-riparian states of planned measures on shared watercourses has been widely accepted as an established principle of international water law, and is codified and elaborated in the United Nations Watercourses Convention. However, despite this wide acceptance, differences have arisen on operationalizing notification, including on which riparians are required to undertake notification, and which riparians are entitled to it. Issues have also arisen on how to deal with the different types of responses that may ensue following notification. The World Bank has been financing projects on international watercourses since its inception in 1946, and has built an extensive wealth of policies and experience in this field. This monograph discusses the historical and legal foundations of notification under international law, analyzes the policies and implementation experience of the World Bank thereon, and identifies comparators and synergies between the provisions of the Watercourses Convention and the Bank policies and practice.

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Maria A. Gwynn

In Adapting Watercourse Agreements to Developments in International Law: The Case of the Itaipu Treaty Maria A. Gwynn offers an account of the need to align watercourses agreements to the current standards and principles of international law, thereby increasing prospects for achieving sustainable development. As a case study, the author focuses on the most important hydroelectrical energy treaty in the South American region and astutely explores its implementation together with states’ practices regarding the non-navigational uses of watercourses and their commitments to environmental protection. The analysis offers a unique opportunity to assess the value of the UN Watercourses Convention in recommending states adapt their agreements to the provisions of the convention promoting equitable and reasonable uses of watercourses; an interest not only for the treaty partners but also for river basin states and the international community as a whole.

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Pirjo Kleemola-Juntunen

The Åland Strait is a particularly important sea route connecting the Gulf of Bothnia with the Baltic Sea between Sweden and the Åland Islands. The Åland Strait is closely connected to the Åland Islands, which were demilitarised in the international legal treaty ending the Crimean War in the 1850s. Following World War I, the Åland Strait was also regulated by the 1921 Convention relating to the Non-fortification of and Neutralisation of the Åland Islands. This book is the first to examine passage rights in the Åland Strait according to the Law of the Sea and its long history in times of war and peace.

Intergenerational Equity

Environmental and Cultural Concerns

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Edited by Thomas Cottier, Shaheeza Lalani and Clarence Siziba

In Intergenerational Equity: Environmental and Cultural Concerns, the editors have produced an important, broad-based volume on intergenerational equity. The authors explore the principle of intergenerational equity in many dimensions, from the theoretical to the practical. While the primary focus is on intergenerational equity in the context of environmental resources and cultural heritage, the principle is also addressed in a broad array of other contexts. The final section of the volume considers intergenerational justice as it applies to indigenous peoples, genocide, migration, sovereign wealth funds and foreign investment. The chapters also provide a critical analysis of the issues and a consideration of the difficulties in implementing intergenerational equity.

Climate Border Adjustments and WTO Law

Extending the EU Emissions Trading System to Imported Goods and Services

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Ulrike Will

In Climate Border Adjustments and WTO Law, Ulrike Will develops a convincing reform proposal for a climate border adjustment (BA) on imports within the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). The proposed framework offers a realistic approach which would be immune to disputes at the WTO and comply with international climate agreements while remaining economically feasible and straightforward to implement.
The book offers a comprehensive analysis of the WTO cases that might have parallels to the unresolved case of BAs. It provides interpretations of vague legal terms of the applicable WTO agreements and guidance on how to balance between environmentally related and trade liberalising WTO rules. Typified constellations of BAs pave the way for a reform of the EU ETS Directive.
The inclusion of legal findings in the context of economic theory and climate science allows for a meaningful discussion of the functioning of the BA, relevant markets and competitive effects of specific design proposals. The proposed framework also takes into account the prevention of extra-jurisdictional effects.

International Law and Sea Level Rise

Report of the International Law Association Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise

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Edited by Davor Vidas, David Freestone and Jane McAdam

This book contains the final version of the 2018 Report of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise, as well as the related ILA Resolutions 5/2018 and 6/2018, both as adopted by the ILA at its 78th Biennial Conference, held in Sydney, Australia, 19–24 August 2018. In Part I of the Report, key information about the establishment of the Committee, its mandate and its work so far is presented. Part II of the Report addresses key law of the sea issues through a study of possible impacts of sea level rise and their implications under international law regarding maritime limits lawfully determined by the coastal States, and the agreed or adjudicated maritime boundaries. Part III of the Report addresses international law provisions, principles and frameworks for the protection of persons displaced in the context of sea level rise.

Edited by David Freestone

Since 2006 the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has been discussing the question of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Following the issues raised by the Ad Hoc Working Group (2006 – 2015) and the Preparatory Commission (2016 – 2017) in 2017 the UNGA agreed to convene an intergovernmental conference to discuss these issues.
Conserving Biodiversity in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction, edited by David Freestone, brings together a collection of essays covering some of the key issues involved in these debates. The essays are contributed by a number of distinguished scholars and practitioners – many of whom are involved in the UNGA negotiations – and are a useful reference for actors involved in the negotiations as well as for practitioners, scholars, and students following the process.

The International Law Association Helsinki Rules

Contribution to International Water Law

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Slavko Bogdanović

Although the International Law Association (ILA) was established in 1873, it only turned its attention to the internationally shared water resources in 1954, when its half-century study of the applicable principles and rules of international law thereon began. The first ILA committee assigned to this task was the Rivers Committee, which, after a decade of intensive study and through several resolutions and statements, arrived unanimously at a set of articles reflecting customary international law, known as the Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Waters of International Rivers.
The Helsinki Rules, approved at the ILA 1966 Helsinki Conference, were soon widely accepted across the Globe as a non-binding authoritative source of international water law. This monograph traces the work of the ILA leading to the Helsinki Rules, analyses the Rules, and identifies their influence on and contribution to the evolution of international water law.