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Les Douze Prophètes dans la LXX

Protocoles et procédures dans la traduction grecque: stylistique, poétique et histoire

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Edited by Cécile Dogniez and Phillipe Le Moigne

La traduction grecque des Douze Prophètes est intéressante à plus d’un titre. Le caractère littéraire de ces textes légitime le réexamen des protocoles et des procédures stylistiques et poétiques mis en œuvre par le traducteur lors du transfert de l’hébreu au grec. Les acquis récents en histoire textuelle justifient de revenir sur certaines variantes du texte grec, qu’elles relèvent d’une Vorlage différente du texte massorétique ou des procédures textuelles imaginées face à un mot hébreu rare ou à une difficulté exégétique. Les traces d’interprétation obligent ainsi à interroger le milieu de production – culturel, politique ou religieux – de la Septante des Douze. Les lectures juives et chrétiennes du Dodékaprophéton, de Symmaque à l’expression iconographique byzantine, témoignent enfin de l’importance de l’histoire de la réception autant que du texte lui-même.

The Greek translation of the Minor Prophets is interesting from several points of view. The literary character of the texts calls for a re-examination of the stylistic and poetic strategies employed by the translator. Recent developments in the study of textual history justify a fresh study of certain variants in the Greek that may arise either from a non-Masoretic Vorlage or from attempts to deal with rare Hebrew words or exegetical difficulties. Such signs of interpretative activity thus raise questions about the original context in which the Septuagint of the Twelve was produced. Finally, Jewish and Christian readings of the Dodekapropheton testify to the importance of the book’s reception history as well as of the text itself.

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Edited by Thierry Legrand and Jan Joosten

Although the Jewish Targums were written down only from the second century CE onward, and need to be studied against their Late Antique background, the issue of their connection to earlier sources and traditions is an important one. Do the existing Targums link up with an oral translation of Scripture and, if so, how far does it go back? Do the Targums transmit traditional exegetical material in a distinct form? What is the relation between the Targums and "parabiblical" literature of the Second Temple period (including the New Testament)?
In the present volume, these and other questions are studied and debated by an international group of scholars including some of the best specialists of Targumic literature in all its diversity, as well as specialists of various Second Temple writings.

Aux origines des messianismes Juifs

Actes du colloque international tenu en Sorbonne, à Paris, les 8 et 9 juin 2010

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Edited by David Hamidović

Les termes « messie » et « messianisme » recouvrent aujourd’hui une désignation exagérément large au regard de leur sens initial dans le judaïsme et le christianisme. Ils sont utilisés dans des contextes qui empruntent souvent inconsciemment aux modèles rhétoriques à l’oeuvre dans le judaïsme ancien et dans le christianisme primitif. Le livre s’intéresse à ces modèles qui caractérisent l’histoire intellectuelle du premier messianisme juif. Tout d’abord, l’émergence du messianisme est examinée à travers les modèles de divinisation du roi dans le Proche-Orient ancien (Égypte, Mésopotamie, culture cananéenne), et à travers l’évolution de l’idéologie royale dans l’Israël ancien. D'autre part, les premiers textes chrétiens ont mis en avant la fusion des attentes messianiques en une seule figure de messie (Jésus-Christ), mais la pluralité des figures messianiques semble prévaloir dans la littérature juive ancienne.

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The words ‘messiah’ and ‘messianism’ are presently used in a too wide significance in comparison with their original meaning in Judaism and
Christianity. Nevertheless, they often borrow unconsciously from rhetorical models at work in Ancient Judaism and Christianity. The book constitutes a series of studies on these models which characterize the intellectual history of the first Jewish messianism. Firstly, the birth of messianism is studied across the divinization of kings in Ancient Near East (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Canaanite culture) and secondly, the change of royal ideology in Ancient Israel to messianism. Thirdly, the first Christian texts have promoted the merging of messianic expectations in one messianic figure (Jesus-Christ), but the plurality of messiahs seem to prevail in early Jewish literature.

La représentation du divin dans les récits du Pentateuque

Médiations syntaxiques et narratives

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Françoise Mirguet

Though several studies have already been devoted to biblical representations of God, the present research considers the position towards the divine they imply, on the basis of syntactic and narrative analysis. The book examines, in the stories of the Pentateuch, different appearances of the divine character: his speeches, as well as their modes of reporting; his actions, their mediations, and the points of view from which they are told; his perceptions and emotions, as well as the so-called omniscient narration; and some interpretations and distortions of his words. It appears that the Pentateuch presents the divine in an essentially mimetic way, mainly from the perspectives of other characters, portraying different human experiences and interpretations of divinity.

L'énigme du bonheur

Étude sur le sujet du bien dans le livre de Qohélet

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Bertrand Pinçon

This study deals with the question of happiness in the book of Qoheleth, starting with the contemporary debate among modern writers concerning the status of various encouraging statements that emerge out of a general context in which “all is vanity”. The first part of this study describes the current position of research, examining the debated questions. The second part proposes an exegetical and contextual inquiry of the words for happiness, drawn up by these authors. The third part suggests a way of resolving the enigma of happiness, based upon an additional formula of happiness, located at the beginning of the second half of the book. Gradually, a conviction takes shape: happiness does not have the same status in the two parts of the book. If, at first, happiness is presented as the only alternative given by God to help man to hold on when faced with the fleetingness of things in life, it later becomes an art of living, apt to be taught to future generations.

Le Temps et les Temps

dans les littératures juives et chrétiennes au tournant de notre ère

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Christian Grappe and Jean-Claude Ingelaere

This volume deals with calendar and liturgical times on the one hand. It discusses questions related to the establishment of the calendar and the observance of traditional and new feasts in Palestine and in the diaspora. On the other hand this book deals with the predetermined organization of the times. It considers the periodization of times and the idea of a revelation being carried out from one period to another; the irruption of the fixed Time and the concomitant representation of a recovery of the times; and the expectation of the last times. In particular, the texts from Qumran, the New Testament, and hellenistic Jewish literature are investigated, but older and more recent texts are taken into account as well.

Les systèmes sacrificiels de l'Ancien Testament

Formes et fonctions du culte sacrificiel à Yhwh

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Alfred Marx

The present study is an attempt to decode the sacrificial system of ancient Israel, to understand how the different kinds of sacrifice are related, the choice of the sacrificial materials, and the shape of their ritual. Special attention is given to the social function of sacrifice. Starting from a comparison between the isolated data and the systems of P, the Chronist and Ezekiel, the study stresses the specificity of each system, and tries to point out the distinctive features of Israel's sacrificial cult. The concluding chapter sketches the evolution of the sacrificial cult. An exhaustive index of textual references offers an overview of all Old Testament passages relating to sacrifice.

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Guy Lasserre

Synopse des lois du Pentateuque contains synopses in Hebrew of the different laws of the Pentateuch arranged thematically. The main collections and lists are followed in succession and in their entirety.
The main part of the work consists of the synopses. The laws figure in them according to the collections and lists to which they belong. Secondary parallels indicate allusions to or quotations from the Old Testament. The introduction gives the methodological principles of the work and explains how to use it. Tables enable the student to visualise all the parallels quickly. Notes explain the choices that have been made.
In order to study the laws, it is essential to compare them. This book facilitates research into the pentateuchal collections and lists, as it does into special prescriptions, rites or institutes.

Voyez de vos yeux

Étude structurelle de vingt psaumes, dont le psaume 119

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Pierre Auffret

Le présent ouvrage tente la mise en oeuvre de l'analyse structurelle pour vingt psaumes, soit les Pss. 52, 54-60, 108, 62, 64-66, 78-80, 91-92, et le grand Ps. 119. Son ambition est de montrer à quel point l'architecture de ces textes en conditionne et en ouvre l'interprétation. Les considérer comme des ensembles structurés, faisant jouer entre les diverses unités des rapports multiples et ordonnés, est nécessaire à leur compréhension. A l'occasion on montre comment l'analyse structurelle permet de mieux saisir l'enchaînement des psaumes consécutifs dans le Psautier, ou encore les rapports entre psaumes opérant entre eux d'importants emprunts (57, 60, 108). Ici sera donc pris en compte en priorité le texte lui-même tel qu'il se présente à nous, afin de saisir ces clefs d'interprétation qui y sont inscrites. L'ouvrage devrait retenir l'attention non seulement des spécialistes des Psaumes, mais encore de quiconque entend les connaître de près. Les études qu'il contient ont été à cette fin basées sur une traduction littérale de chaque psaume, sans renoncer pour autant à recourir, chaque fois que cela s'est avéré nécessaire, au texte hébreu.

Devanciers d'Aquila

Première publication intégrale du texte des fragments du Dodécaprophéton

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Dominique Barthélemy