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The European Union Returns Directive and its Compatibility with International Human Rights Law

Analysis of Return Decision, Entry Ban, Detention, and Removal

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Izabella Majcher

The book undertakes a throughout human rights assessment of the EU Returns Directive. The overarching human rights framework which circumscribes states’ prerogatives in the context of expulsion builds upon obligations derived from the principle of non-refoulement; the right to life, respect for family and private life, effective remedy, basic social rights; the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment; and protection against arbitrary detention and collective expulsion. Based on the assessment of the Directive against this human rights framework, Izabella Majcher discusses several protection gaps in the Directive’s provisions which may result in violations of migrants’ rights and highlights how the Directive’s rules should be implemented to comply with member states’ human rights obligations. Informed by this assessment, the book discusses draft amendments to the Directive, proposed by the European Commission in September 2018.

Forgotten Diplomacy

The Modern Remaking of Dutch-Chinese Relations, 1927–1950

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Vincent K.L. Chang

In this meticulously researched volume, Vincent Chang resurrects a near-forgotten chapter of Dutch-Chinese ties to narrate how World War II, China’s civil war, and Indonesia’s decolonization reshaped and ultimately redefined their age-old bilateral relationship.
Drawing on a wealth of hitherto-unexplored archives, the book explains how China’s rise on the global stage and the Netherlands’ simultaneous decline as a Pacific power informed events in Dutch-controlled Indonesia (and vice versa) and prompted a complete recalibration of bilateral ties, culminating in the Netherlands’ recognition of the People’s Republic and the inception of its “One-China” policy.
Presenting insightful analyses of power dynamics and law, this book is of interest to historians and China specialists as well as scholars of international relations and international law.

Between Criminalization and Protection

The Italian Way of Dealing with Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking within the European and International Context

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Vincenzo Militello and Alessandro Spena

This volume is devoted to the dark side of human mobility, that is migrant smuggling, and, linked with it, human trafficking. Both subjects will be mainly treated from an Italian perspective; however, due to their having a generally transnational character, the analysis will necessarily require that international and supranational actions/measures also be taken into account. Moreover, the legal perspective will be supplemented by the phenomenological/criminological one, through which the authors try to provide the work with a realistic dimension aimed at grasping the practical aspects of both migrant smuggling and human trafficking emerging from the different ways in which such crimes are de facto committed.

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Santiago Wortman Jofre

In Corporate Criminal Liability and Compliance Management Systems: A Case Study of Spain, Santiago Wortman Jofre offers a case study where he examines the way in which Spain understands and implements Compliance Management Systems. Corporate criminal liability has become a matter of controversy in civil law countries since it challenges the traditional principle of societas delinquere non potest, by which corporations cannot be held criminally responsible.
However, corporations have taken a new position in the world’s political agenda, as evidenced by the 2017 G20’s High Level Principles on the Liability of Legal Persons for Corruption. The new trend in criminal law advocates for the criminal responsibility of legal persons and pushes for the implementation of Compliance Management Systems as deterrent for corporate criminality. Santiago Wortman Jofre then presents evidence on the role of criminal justice and the importance of positive stimuli requirements as effective incentives to drive companies to implement compliance programs.

Liberalism, Constitutional Nationalism, and Minorities

The Making of Romanian Citizenship, c. 1750–1918

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Constantin Iordachi

This book documents the making of Romanian citizenship from 1750 to 1918 as a series of acts of national self-determination by the Romanians, as well as the emancipation of subordinated gender, social, and ethno-religious groups. It focuses on the progression of a sum of transnational “questions” that were at the heart of North-Atlantic, European, and local politics during the long nineteenth century, concerning the status of peasants, women, Greeks, Jews, Roma, Armenians, Muslims, and Dobrudjans. The analysis emphasizes the fusion between nationalism and liberalism, and the emancipatory impact national-liberalism had on the transition from the Old Regime to the modern order of the nation-state. While emphasizing liberalism's many achievements, the study critically scrutinizes the liberal doctrine of legal-political “capacity” and the dark side of nationalism, marked by tendencies toward exclusion. It highlights the challenges nascent liberal democracies face in the process of consolidation and the enduring appeal of illiberalism in periods of upheaval, represented mainly by nativism. The book's innovative interdisciplinary approach to citizenship in the Ottoman and post-Ottoman Balkans and the richness of the sources employed, appeal to a diverse readership.

Constantin Iordachi teaches at the Central European University, Budapest. He has published widely on citizenship, nationalism and fascism. His most recent project is Martyrdom to Purification: The Fascist Faith of the Legion `Archangel Michael' in Romania, 1927-1941 (London: Routledge, forthcoming 2019).

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Paolo Astorri

It is clear that the Lutheran Reformation greatly contributed to changes in theological and legal ideas – but what was the extent of its impact on the field of contract law?

Legal historians have extensively studied the contract doctrines developed by Roman Catholic theologians and canonists; however, they have largely neglected Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, Johann Aepinus, Martin Chemnitz, Friedrich Balduin and many other reformers. This book focuses on those neglected voices of the Reformation, exploring their role in the history of contract law. These men mapped out general principles to counter commercial fraud and dictated norms to regulate standard economic transactions. The most learned jurists, such as Matthias Coler, Peter Heige, Benedict Carpzov, and Samuel Stryk, among others, studied these theological teachings and implemented them in legal tenets. Theologians and jurists thus cooperated in resolving contract law problems, especially those concerning interest and usury.

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Maria A. Gwynn

In Adapting Watercourse Agreements to Developments in International Law: The Case of the Itaipu Treaty Maria A. Gwynn offers an account of the need to align watercourses agreements to the current standards and principles of international law, thereby increasing prospects for achieving sustainable development. As a case study, the author focuses on the most important hydroelectrical energy treaty in the South American region and astutely explores its implementation together with states’ practices regarding the non-navigational uses of watercourses and their commitments to environmental protection. The analysis offers a unique opportunity to assess the value of the UN Watercourses Convention in recommending states adapt their agreements to the provisions of the convention promoting equitable and reasonable uses of watercourses; an interest not only for the treaty partners but also for river basin states and the international community as a whole.

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Edited by Christian Riffel and Róisín Burke

The New Zealand Yearbook of International Law is an annual, internationally refereed publication intended to stand as a reference point for legal materials and critical commentary on issues of international law. The Yearbook also serves as a valuable tool in the determination of trends, state practice and policies in the development of international law in New Zealand, the Pacific region, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica and seeks to generate scholarship in those fields. In this regard the Yearbook contains an annual ‘Year-in-Review’ of developments in international law of particular interest to New Zealand as well as a dedicated section on the South Pacific.

This Yearbook covers the period 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017.

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Francisco Pascual-Vives

In Consensus-Based Interpretation of Regional Human Rights Treaties Francisco Pascual-Vives examines the central role played by the notion of consensus in the case law of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. As many other international courts and tribunals do, both regional human rights courts resort to this concept while undertaking an evolutive interpretation of the Rome Convention and the Pact of San José, respectively. The role exerted by the notion of consensus in this framework can be used not only to understand the evolving character of the rights and freedoms recognized by these international treaties, but also to reaffirm the international nature of these regional human rights courts.

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Pirjo Kleemola-Juntunen

The Åland Strait is a particularly important sea route connecting the Gulf of Bothnia with the Baltic Sea between Sweden and the Åland Islands. The Åland Strait is closely connected to the Åland Islands, which were demilitarised in the international legal treaty ending the Crimean War in the 1850s. Following World War I, the Åland Strait was also regulated by the 1921 Convention relating to the Non-fortification of and Neutralisation of the Åland Islands. This book is the first to examine passage rights in the Åland Strait according to the Law of the Sea and its long history in times of war and peace.