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The Health of Prisoners

Historical Essays

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Edited by Richard Creese, Wm. Randolph Bynum and J. Bearn

In eighteenth-century Britain, gaols were places of temporary confinement, where inmates stayed while awaiting punishment. With the rise of the 'penitentiary' from the early nineteenth century, custodial institutions housed prisoners for much longer periods of time. Prisoners were supposed to be reformed as well as punished during their incarceration. From at least the time of John Howard (1726-1790), the health of prisoners has been part of the concern of philanthropists and others concerned with the wider functions of prisons. The Victorians established a Prison Medical Service, and members of the medical profession have long been involved in caring for the mental and physical needs of prisoners. For two centuries, prison overcrowding has been identified as a major cause of mortality and morbidity in prisons. Historical debates thus often have a modern ring to them, which make the essays in this volume particularly timely.

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Edited by Vivian Nutton and Roy Porter

Professional education forms a key element in the transmission of medical learning and skills, in occupational solidarity and in creating and recreating the very image of the practitioner. Yet the history of British medical education has hitherto been surprisingly neglected. Building upon papers contributed to two conferences on the history of medical education in the early 1990s, this volume presents new research and original synthesis on key aspects of medical instruction, theoretical and practical, from early medieval times into the present century. Academic and practical aspects are equally examined, and balanced attention is given to different sites of instruction, be it the university or the hospital. The crucial role of education in medical qualifications and professional licensing is also examined as is the part it has played in the regulation of the entry of women to the profession.

Contributors are Juanita Burnby, W.F. Bynum, Laurence M. Geary, Faye Getz, Johanna Geyer-Kordesch, S.W.F. Holloway, Stephen Jacyna, Peter Murray Jones, Helen King, Susan C. Lawrence, Irvine Loudon, Margaret Pelling, Godelieve Van Heteren, and John Harley Warner.

The Kephalaia of the Teacher

The Edited Coptic Manichaean Texts in Translation with Commentary

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Iain Gardner

The Kephalaia of the Teacher is the most detailed account available to modern scholarship of the teachings of Mani, and of the universal religion that he founded as the final successor to Buddha, Zarathushtra and Jesus. This volume provides the first complete English translation of the Coptic text (c. 400 CE), together with introduction, commentaries and indices.
Topics include the apostleship of Mani, the practices of the Manichaean community, accounts of the heavenly and demonic beings and worlds, as well as discussions of astrology and religious psychology.
In Manichaeism many of the gnostic and dualistic themes of early Christianity achieved the status of a world religion, and the subject is the heir to contemporary interest in heterodoxy and the deconstruction of received histories (see the Nag Hammadi codices).

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Edited by Roy Porter

The interpretation of eighteenth-century medicine has been much contested. Some have view it as a wilderness of rationalism and arid theories between the Scientific Revolution and the astonishing changes of the nineteenth-century. Other scholars have emphasized the close and fruitful links between medicine and the Enlightenment, suggesting that medical advance was the very embodiment of the philosphes’ ideal of a practical science that would improve mankind’s lot and foster human happiness.
In a series of essays covering Great Britain, France, Germany and other parts of Europe, noted historians debate these issues through detailed examinations of major aspects of eighteenth-century medicine and medical controversy, including such topics as the introduction of smallpox inoculation, the transformation of medical education, and the treatment of the insane. The essays as a whole suggest a positive reading of the transformations in eighteenth-century medicine, while stressing local diversity and uneven development.

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Edited by Harmke Kamminga and Andrew Cunningham

Modern nutrition science is usually considered to have started in the 1840s, a period of great social and political turmoil in western Europe. Yet the relations between the production of scientific knowledge about nutrition and the social and political valuations that have entered into the promotion and application of nutritional research have not yet received systematic historical attention.
The Science and Culture of Nutrition, 1840-1940 for the first time looks at the ways in which scientific theories and investigations of nutrition have made their impact on a range of social practices and ideologies, and how these in turn have shaped the priorities and practices of the science of nutrition. In these reciprocal interactions, nutrition science has affected medical practice, government policy, science funding, and popular thinking.
In uniting major scientific and cultural themes, the twelve contributions in this book show how Western society became a nutrition culture.

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Edited by Ann La Berge and Mordechai Feingold

The eleven essays in this volume illustrate the richness, complexity, and diversity of French medical culture in the nineteenth century, a period that witnessed the medicalization of French society. Medical themes permeated contemporary culture and politics, and medical discourse infused many levels of French society from the bastions of science - the medical faculties and research institutions - to novels, the theater, and the daily lives of citizens as patients.
The contributors to this volume - all established scholars in the history of medicine - present the French medical experience from the point of view of both practitioners and patients, and show how medical themes colored popular perceptions and shaped public policies. Topics addressed range from popular medicine to elite Parisian medicine, the interaction of literary and medical discourse, social theater, medical research and practice, medical specialization and education. The essays reflect current trends of medico-historical analysis which emphasize the centrality of class, race, and gender in understanding concepts of disease and the practice of medicine. They show how the medical experience of patients, practitioners, students, and researchers varied according to social class, gender, and geography and the importance of these factors for the construction of disease.

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Edited by Dorothy Porter

Since George Rosen’s comprehensive History of Public Health, first published in 1956, there has been no internationally comparative survey of the subject. Over the past three decades or so, however, research in this field has expanded rapidly, especially with regard to the history of disease and social order and public health politics and the state. Most of these studies have been highly scholarly and specialised and often dealing with only one aspect of public health in any one national context. The essays here examine the road history of public health in different national contexts in order to provide a work of comparative reference that could be used as a teaching aid.
The book focuses on whether the construction of a public health system is an inherent characteristic of the managerial function of modern political systems. Thus, each essay traces the steps leading to the growth of health government in various nations, examining the specific conflicts and contradictions which each incurred. As a result the volume highlights the need for further comparative analysis of public health systems as a highly fruitful topic for future study.

Doctors and Ethics

The Historical Setting of Professional Ethics

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Edited by Andrew Wear, Johanna Geyer-Kordesch and Roger French

Medical ethics has been a constant adjunct of Western medicine from its origins in Greek times. Although the Hippocratic Oath has been intensely studied, until recently there has been very little historical work on medical ethics between the Oath and Thomas Percival's Medical Ethics of 1803, which is commonly thought of as the first treatise on modern medical ethics. This volume brings together original research which throws new light on how standards of behaviour for medical practitioners were articulated in the different religious, political and social as well as medical contexts from the classical period until the nineteenth century. Its ten essays will place the early history of medical ethics into the framework of the new social and intellectual history of medicine that has been developed in the last ten years.

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Edited by Dorothy Porter and Roy Porter

The great British reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote that 'the art of legislation is but the art of healing practised upon a large scale'. He added that 'It is the common endeavour of both to relieve men from the miseries of life. But the physician relieves them one by one: the legislator by millions at a time'. Bentham raised the question of the interplay of medicine with politics. It forms an important topic with powerful contemporary overtones. This volume, containing eleven essays plus a lengthy introduction, seeks to explore it historically. It takes a long perspective, covering the last two centuries and also an international viewpoint, examining Britain in detail but also containing contributions dealing with the United States, Germany, Russia and France.