In this revised edition of
Moral Conflicts of Organ Retrieval: A Case for Constructive Pluralism, Charles Hinkley elaborates on his moral philosophy of constructive pluralism and updates the literature on organ retrieval strategies. Hinkley challenges a deeply entrenched moral triad: 1) moral values are comparable; 2) the weighing metaphor helps us conceptualize decisions regarding conflicting values; and 3) there is a single best discoverable response to a moral decision. This book offers an alternative—cases of incomparability, a constructing or making metaphor, and multiple permissible responses to some moral questions. Constructive pluralism has important implications for organ transplantation, health, and ethics.
This study presents an overview of the wooden furniture that has come to light since the rediscovery of Herculaneum in the 18th century, with an emphasis on the form, function and the techniques employed. The combination of comments in the excavation reports with the information derived from the surviving pieces of furniture and fittings made of other materials as well as indications for the presence of furniture in the architecture and decoration of the houses, offers a representative idea of the role of wooden furniture in the interior arrangements of the houses at Herculaneum.
This book offers a synoptic introduction to an important chapter of Polish 20th century philosophy, by introducing the studies of Kazimierz Twardowski, Tadeusz Czeżowski, Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Roman Ingarden, Henryk Elzenberg, Maria Ossowska, and Józef Maria Bocheński and how they contributed to value theory, ethics and aesthetics. These philosophers differed in their more definite interests, methodological approaches, and main results and yet their investigations share a number of characteristic features. Questions of value, considered as extremely vital, are treated with care and precision. In spite of the richness of their insights and an impressive number of detailed results these philosophers refrain from hasty conclusions, trying here, as elsewhere, to conduct their studies in an intellectually and morally responsible way.
Winner of the the Roman and Tania Ghirshman Prize 2015 by the French Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. This prize was established in 1973 by the donation made by Roman Ghirshman, one of the prominent French archaeologists of Pre-Islamic Iran. It is awarded annually for a publication in the field of Pre-Islamic Iranian Studies.
Intangible Spirits and Graven Images, Michael Shenkar investigates the perception of ancient Iranian deities and their representation in the Iranian cults. This ground-breaking study traces the evolution of the images of these deities, analyses the origin of their iconography, and evaluates their significance. Shenkar also explores the perception of anthropomorphism and aniconism in ancient Iranian religious imagery, with reference to the material evidence and the written sources, and reassesses the value of the Avestan and Middle Persian texts that are traditionally employed to illuminate Iranian religious imagery. In doing so, this book provides important new insights into the religion and culture of ancient Iran prior to the Islamic conquest.
In December 2009, an international congress was held at Ghent University in order to investigate, exactly 20 years after the 36th RAI “Mésopotamie et Elam”, the present state of our knowledge of the Elamite and Susean society from archaeological, philological, historical and geographical points of view. The multidisciplinary character of this congress illustrates the present state of research in the socio-economic, historical and political developments of the Suso-Elamite region from prehistoric times until the great Persian Empire. Because of its strategically important location between the Mesopotamian alluvial plain and the Iranian highlands and its particular interest as point of contact between civilizations, Susa and Elam were of utmost importance for the history of the ancient Near East in general.
Finnish pupils’ success in international student assessment tests and the characteristics of the Finnish educational system are the focus of interest all around in the world. The significance of Finnish educational policy and societal atmosphere are continuously discussed. This book provides explanations, answers and reflections to these questions. Over 30 expert authors have contributed to this book by bringing their own specific research-based points of view.
The second edition of the book introduces the new national curriculum for basic education that now provides guidelines for school-based curricula. Students’ learning with engagement and schools as learning communities are core visions of the reform. The authors also reflect on the PISA 2012 results. The book gives an example on how to use PISA information for national improvements. In Finland, all evaluations are enhancement-led and this also includes PISA measurements.
The book illustrates how teaching and learning of different subjects is realized in Finnish schools and describes the essential characteristics and methods of teaching, learning materials and research on these issues.
The book provides important insight and reflections to international researchers, teachers, students, journalists and policy makers, who are interested in teaching and learning in Finnish schools. It shows the results of the systematic and persistent work that has been done on education and schooling in Finland.
The main features of education in Finland are:
- Strong equity policy.
- Teachers as autonomous and reflective academic experts.
- Flexible educational structures and local responsibility for curriculum development.
- Evaluation for improvements, not for ranking.
- No national testing, no inspectorate.
- Research-based teacher education.
- Teachers’ high competence in content knowledge and pedagogy.
- Trust in education and teachers.
Western educators constantly look for ways to make the process of learning more meaningful, to kindle the spark that initiates a lifelong pursuit of knowledge and creative innovation. Recent theories have favored the development of critical learning skills over the acquisition of facts. However, these theories are rooted in Western democratic and egalitarian assumptions, some of which exist in no other culture on earth. Although it seems logical that any learner, set at liberty to explore the world, would naturally develop the ability to think critically and analytically, it is important to point out that Western logic is not universal, and what seems natural is, in fact, a product of the Western independence-oriented worldview.
This book examines the consequences of taking a full-blown constructivist approach into Arabic tertiary education, and uncovers some interesting hidden factors that prevent cognitive progress in this environment. This seemingly natural approach to learning does not, in fact, come naturally, but requires careful preparation to enable learners to accept cognitive experiences that may be culturally uncomfortable.
This volume, the first in Brill’s
Japanese Visual Culture series, vividly describes the efforts of the Japanese monk Shunjōbō Chōgen (1121–1206) to restore major buildings and works of art lost in a brutal civil conflict in 1180. Chōgen is best known for his role in the recasting of the Great Buddha (Daibutsu) and the reconstructing of the South Great Gate (Nandaimon) of Tōdaiji in Nara and its huge, dramatic wooden guardian figures. This study concentrates on these and other replacement statues and buildings associated with Chōgen and situates the visual arts of Japan into the spiritual and socio-political context of their times. Through meticulous study of dedicatory material, Rosenfield is able to place the splendid Buddhist statues made for Chōgen in vivid new light. The volume also explores how Japan’s rulers employed the visual arts as instruments of government policy – a tactic that recurs throughout the nation’s history. This publication includes an annotated translation of Chōgen’s memoir, completed near the end of his life, in which he recounts his many achievements. In chapters on East Asian portraiture, Rosenfield claims that surviving statues of Chōgen, carved with mordant realism, rank among the world’s most eloquent portraits, and herald the great changes that were to permeate Japanese religious and secular arts in the centuries to come. While Chōgen has been the subject of major art exhibitions and extensive research in Japan; this is the first book-length study to appear in the West.
Educational Research by Association is an archive of an archive. It is a collection of eleven Presidential Addresses delivered over the last 40 years to the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) and published annually in AARE’s academic journal, the Australian Educational Researcher (AER). However, it is more than an archive in that the selection and the opening essay seek to plot, evaluate and contribute to definitions of education research and its functions and purposes in a changing world, and to consider its impact, broadly defined, in both actual and desirable or normative terms. In pursuing this agenda, the book highlights a number of key issues that have become important in educational research over time, particularly in Australia but also around the globe. These include defining education research as a field, including AARE’s location within that field and the positioning of the presidents’ Addresses therein. They also include questions about the purposes of education research, which implies as well the issue of the readership for such research. The selection also touches on matters of dissemination, publication and diffusion and impact more broadly, raising matters of publication and the various and competing outlets for publication of education research, nationally and increasingly on an international scale. Issues of quality, including associated politics, also come into play, as do questions of the relationship of education research to education policy and practice. These latter questions have become more significant in state policies framed by a new public management that call for evidence-based policy. The opening essay by Bob Lingard and Trevor Gale, two former AARE Presidents, traverses these matters generally and in respect of this archive of Presidential Addresses, helping to define educational research in an increasingly globalised world.
Fanon and the Counterinsurgency of Education takes up the challenge of an anti-colonial reading of Fanon to broach questions of identity, difference and belonging, and the implications for schooling and education. The authors deliberately offer a careful and selective capturing of Fanon’s works, pointing to the relevance for oppressed communities as they resist re-organized colonial relations in schooling and education. While colonialism and neo-colonialism have functioned and continue to function differently in diverse environments and social contexts, contributions in the book enthuse that we must raise new questions in a bold attempt to re-theorize colonial relations, social difference and the representational politics of education. Educators must ask new questions in order to contribute to knowledge of how to resist the entrapments of colonialism, racism, exploitation and alienation. Frantz Fanon’s oeuvre is informative to the pursuit of critical education, especially, when we examine the colonial encounter and the colonized experience. The book offers concrete lessons in the struggle to revise education to meet the needs of diverse communities.