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Transboundary Offshore Aquifers

A Search for a Governance Regime

Series:

Renee Martin-Nagle

In Transboundary Offshore Aquifers: A Search for a Governance Regime, Renee Martin-Nagle explains the geologic origins of offshore freshwater aquifers and proposes a governance regime for offshore aquifers that are shared by two or more nations. While the existence of freshwater offshore aquifers under continental shelves has been known for decades, none discovered thus far straddle an international border. In the event that an offshore aquifer shared by two or more nations is identified and targeted for development, selection of a governance regime for the aquifer will present a unique challenge, and several current legal systems could provide valuable guidance. While laws addressing transboundary land-based aquifers are still in a nascent stage, customary international law for surface water has evolved over centuries and could provide analogous rules for development of another freshwater resource. This monograph explores principles for sharing natural resources and proposes a governance regime for transboundary offshore aquifers.

Climate Change and International Shipping

The Regulatory Framework for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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Yubing Shi

In Climate Change and International Shipping: The Regulatory Framework for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Yubing Shi provides ground-breaking analyses of the evolving regulatory framework for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping. This book examines the applicability of international environmental law principles to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships and assesses the responses of the key stakeholders to the challenge of regulation. Based on these in-depth analyses, Shi identifies key gaps in the current regulatory framework for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and proposes options for legal and institutional reforms to improve the system in place.

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Ingvild Ulrikke Jakobsen

Marine Protected Areas in International law – an Arctic perspective, introduces and analyzes the legal rights and obligations of states under international law, using Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as a tool to protect marine biodiversity. The fragile Arctic marine environment is under growing pressure from climate change and the prospect of increasing human activity affecting previously untouched areas. The conservation of Arctic marine biodiversity is a pressing and global concern, not least because the melting of sea ice will have widespread effects. By analyzing regional cooperation through the OSPAR Convention and under the Arctic Council, Jakobsen examines the implementation of the global legal framework for biodiversity protection and conservation in the Arctic. The book has a particular focus on the possibilities of the states to regulate shipping within the MPAs, as the increasing shipping activities represent a major threat to the sensitive marine Arctic.

Series:

Joanna Kulesza

Due Diligence in International Law identifies due diligence as the missing link between state responsibility and international liability. Acknowledged in all legal fields, it ensures international peaceful cooperation and prevents significant transboundary harm, yet it has thus far not been comprehensively discussed in literature. The present volume fills this void.
Kulesza identifies due diligence as a principle of international law and traces its evolution throughout centuries. The no-harm principle, key to identifying responsibility for transboundary harm, focal to international environmental law and applicable to e.g. combating terrorism, follows states’ obligation of due diligence in preventing foreign harm. This obligation, present in various treaty-based and customary regimes is argued to be a principle of international public law applicable to all obligations of conduct.

Statehood under Water

Challenges of Sea-Level Rise to the Continuity of Pacific Island States

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Alejandra Torres Camprubí

In Statehood under Water, Alejandra Torres Camprubí revisits the concept of statehood through an analysis on how sea-level rise and the Anthropocene challenge the territorial, demographical, and political dimensions of the State. Closely examining the fight for survival undertaken by low-lying Pacific Island States, the author engages with the legal and policy innovations necessary to address these new scenarios.

This monograph reacts against overly formal approaches to the law on statehood, and is devoted to the reconstruction of the context in which both the challenges, and the measures adopted to tackle them, are taking place. Progressively forged within the international community, it is the kind of political and ethical framework that will soon inform the potential transformation of the law on statehood.

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Armelle Gouritin

In EU Environmental Law, International Environmental Law, and Human Rights Law: The Case of Environmental Responsibility, Armelle Gouritin offers a critical appraisal of EU environmental responsibility law and asserts a new rights-based approach to international environmental law. This book addresses environmental damage, environmental harm, the grounds for environmental responsibility and the exceptions to the responsibility principle. A critical appraisal of EU Directives 2004/35 and 2008/99 is complemented by an analysis of the input of the European Court on Human Rights and international environmental law with a view to filling the gaps identified in the Directives. Gouritin offers a full analysis of the potential and limits of the rights-based approach applied to environmental responsibility.

The Changing Arctic and the European Union

A Book Based on the Report “Strategic Assessment of Development of the Arctic: Assessment Conducted for the European Union”

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Edited by Adam Stepien, Timo Koivurova and Paula Kankaanpää

The Changing Arctic and the European Union provides a balanced and up-to-date overview of the multidimensional change taking place in the Arctic regions. Against this background, the role of the European Union regarding Arctic developments is considered, including the ongoing process of formulating an umbrella EU Arctic policy. In particular, the themes of climate change, maritime transport, fisheries, offshore oil and gas extraction, mining, land use and sociocultural change are discussed. The book comprises primarily an updated and expanded version of the report Strategic Assessment of Development of the Arctic: An assessment conducted for the European Union, produced for the European Commission. The report was to a great extent based on the interaction with Arctic stakeholders.

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Edited by Francesca Romanin Jacur, Angelica Bonfanti and Francesco Seatzu

The growing demand for natural resources has triggered a “race” to their exploitation and possession, especially in developing countries. Most desired are water, land, forests, raw materials (oil, gas, mineral and precious stones), fisheries and genetic resources. Emerging economies, Western states, multinational corporations and international financial institutions have become the biggest “buyers” in a race that on one hand strengthens economies and creates investment opportunities and on the other threatens local communities and environmental protection.

Natural Resources Grabbing: An International Law Perspective aims at filling a gap in the legal literature by addressing the adverse effects that large-scale investments in natural resources may pose to fundamental human rights and the protection of the environment.


Series:

Ricardo Pereira

The drive for harmonisation of environmental criminal standards at both the international and European level emerges from the increasing recognition of the scale and seriousness of environmental crime, the need to strengthen mechanisms of police and judicial interstate cooperation to combat cross-border crime, and the objective to ensure fair competition in a global economy and an integrated EU common market. The harmonisation of environmental criminal law requires a competent institutional framework able to convey the need for criminalisation of environmental harm while not overriding national aspirations to sovereignty in criminal matters. The book Environmental Criminal Liability and Enforcement in European and International Law assesses legal, theoretical and practical questions of harmonisation of national environmental criminal law and the mechanisms for cooperation by sovereign states under European and International Law, with a particular emphasis on legislative developments in the European Union, the Council of Europe and other international institutions, assessing the case for an extension of the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over international environmental crimes.

Edited by Harry N. Scheiber, James Kraska and Moon-Sang Kwon

Science, Technology, and New Challenges to Ocean Law offers fresh perspectives on a set of vital issues in the field of ocean law and policy. Since the early period of the industrial revolution, successive waves of revolutionary scientific discoveries and technological innovations have intensified the global population’s exploitation of ocean and coastal resources. In this volume, several leading authorities in the field address major dimensions of the interface of science, technology and ocean law—both historically and in current-day perspective—and emergent challenges in legal ordering of ocean uses for sustainability and equitability. Among the topics that are analysed in these readable, accessible papers are ecosystem approaches to resource management, the historic interplay of science and military concerns, the place of science in dispute-settlement processes, the varied human uses of the seabed, the roles in ocean governance of indigenous peoples, legal issues in fisheries management and conservation, and special regional problems of the Arctic, the Bering Strait, the South China Sea, and the eastern Mediterranean. The urgent importance of the subjects addressed here, together with the variety of disciplinary approaches deployed by the authors, enhance the value of this book’s unique contribution to the literature of ocean studies.