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This collection consists of 267 printed works by and on the great Dutch humanist and jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), published between 1609-1941, that are kept at the Peace Palace Library in The Hague. 205 of these titles have been published on microfiche before in the collections on international law and jurisprudence. 18 more titles have been digitized from microfiche, that have not been published before. 44 more titles have been newly scanned and added to this online collection. Including one of only three known copies of the rare first state of the first edition of De Iure Belli ac Pacis, purchased in 2012 by the Peace Palace Library. The result is an indispensable source of information covering a wide range of disciplines. From law, jurisprudence and diplomacy to philosophy, history and theology. This collection enables scholars to examine the work of Hugo Grotius, quickly and efficiently online.
The titles in this collection can be divided into a few subject categories and are written in several languages.

Subject categories
Écritures: Works on Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
History: Works by Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
International Law: Works on Hugo Grotius - 165 titles
Jurisprudence: Works by Hugo Grotius - 84 titles
Poesie: Works by Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
Theology: Works on Hugo Grotius - 11 titles
[no subject] - 1 title

Dutch - 88 titles
English - 33 titles
French - 19 titles
German - 13 titles
Italian - 3 titles
Latin - 108 titles
Polish - 1 title
Spanish - 1 title
various languages - 1 title

The collection at the Peace Palace
In 1914, the Hague publisher Martinus Nijhoff donated to the recently established library of the Peace Palace a collection comprising 55 editions of De Iure Belli ac Pacis ( On the Law of War and Peace), the most famous work by the great Dutch humanist and jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645). The Nijhoff collection comprised editions in Latin, the original language of the publication, as well as in French, English, German and Dutch. Imprints ranged from 1625 to 1901.

De Iure Belli ac Pacis
The gift from Nijhoff was singularly appropriate because De Iure Belli ac Pacis is a milestone in the history of international law. In this work, Grotius lays out his doctrine of natural law as the basis for the justifiable war. For a long period, De Iure Belli ac Pacis was granted such high significance that its author was regarded as the father of international law. The work aroused much interest at the very beginning of the period between the two World Wars because the conviction gained ground that Grotius's body of thought could provide an answer to the question of how to clear away the violence of war and cultivate a lasting peace.

Largest collection in the world
Using the gift from Nijhoff as foundation, subsequent librarians of the Peace Palace have strived to expand the collection: many other works of Grotius were added, or obtained in photocopy-form from other libraries, with the aim of bringing together as complete a corpus as possible. The Grotius Collection at the Peace Palace Library holds approximately 200 editions of De Iure Belli ac Pacis (in all languages imaginable), and 100 other legal works including Mare Liberum and Inleidinghe tot de Hollandsche Rechts-geleerheid, as well as Grotius’ contributions to history, theology, philology, and poetry – a total of more than 1200 volumes spanning 50 meters of shelves. The collection of Grotiana in the library of the Peace Palace is the largest anywhere in the world.

Jacob ter Meulen
Hence, the Peace Palace can function as a home for research into the life and work of Hugo Grotius. In this respect, Jacob ter Meulen is worthy of special mention. Ter Meulen, librarian at the Peace Palace from 1924 until 1952, has been of immeasurable service to the field of Grotius research. Following years of intensive bibliographical investigation, in 1950 he published, together with his colleague P.J.J. Diermanse, the Bibliographie des écrits imprimés de Hugo Grotius (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), which contains an exhaustive description of every known edition of Grotius's works. The book, known by Grotius specialists simply as TMD, is an indispensable work of reference for any serious researcher into the life and work of Grotius. In 1961, Ter Meulen and Diermanse published another edition of Bibliographie des écrits sur Hugo Grotius, imprimés a u XVII siècle (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), a bibliography that includes all minor seventeenth century literature devoted to Hugo Grotius. Both bibliographies were used as a frame of reference for this online collection.

For an overview of more Brill publications on Grotius, please click here.

Weapons of Mass Destruction

The Top Secret History of America’s Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare Programs and Their Deployment Overseas

At its peak in 1967, the U.S. nuclear arsenal consisted of 31,255 nuclear weapons with an aggregate destructive power of 12,786 megatons – more than sufficient to wipe out all of humanity several hundred times over. Much less known is that hidden away in earth-covered bunkers spread throughout the U.S., Europe and Japan, over 40,000 tons of American chemical weapons were stored, as well as thousands of specially designed bombs that could be filled with even deadlier biological warfare agents.

The American WMD programs remain cloaked in secrecy, yet a substantial number of revealing documents have been quietly declassified since the late 1970s. Put together, they tell the story of how America secretly built up the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. The documents explain the role these weapons played in a series of world crises, how they shaped U.S. and NATO defense and foreign policy during the Cold War, and what incidents and nearly averted disasters happened. Moreover, they shed a light on the dreadful human and ecological legacy left by decades of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons manufacturing and testing in the U.S. and overseas.

This collection contains more than 2,300 formerly classified U.S. government documents, most of them classified Top Secret or higher. Covering the period from the end of World War II to the present day, it provides unique access to previously unpublished reports, memoranda, cables, intelligence briefs, classified articles, PowerPoint presentations, military manuals and directives, and other declassified documents. Following years of archival research and careful selection, they were brought together from the U.S. National Archives, ten U.S. presidential libraries, the NATO Archives in Brussels, the National Archives of the UK, the National Archives of Canada, and the National Archives of the Netherlands. In addition, a sizeable number of documents in this collection were obtained from the U.S. government and the Pentagon using the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) requests.

This collection comes with several auxiliary aids, including a chronology and a historiographical essay with links to the documents themselves, providing context and allowing for easy navigation for both students and scholars.

• The papers in this collection detail how America’s stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were developed, the staggering costs that were involved, the network of laboratories where the bombs and their components were designed and developed, new details about the dozens of secret factories spread across the U.S. where these lethal bombs and warheads were built, the sites where they were tested, and even newly released information about some of the storage depots where the weapons were deployed in the U.S. and overseas.
• This collection contains for the first time ever a comprehensive set of declassified documents which quantify the size and destructive power of the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons stockpile throughout the Cold War era, including new details about the many different types of weapons in these arsenals, such as nuclear landmines (Atomic Demolition Munitions) and even a nuclear-capable recoilless rifle system.
• This collection contains hundreds of pages of declassified Defense Department and State Department documents concerning the secret negotiations between the U.S. government and over fifteen foreign governments concerning the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries (complete biological weapons were never deployed overseas), as well as the even more difficult task later in the Cold War of trying to get permission to remove these weapons after they had outlived their usefulness. In some instances, the U.S. government deliberately did not inform the host nations that they had deployed nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries, as in the case of Japan, which was shocked to learn in 1969 that the U.S. was storing large numbers of nuclear and chemical weapons on the island of Okinawa without their knowledge or consent.
• Also included are over a hundred declassified documents regarding U.S. nuclear war plans, detailing how the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were to be used in wartime, including lists of their targets inside the USSR and the People’s Republic of China; newly declassified documents containing the details of all known nuclear, chemical and biological weapons accidents, some of which produced fatal results; and incidents involving attempts by foreign governments (Greece, Turkey and South Korea) to pressure the U.S. government by threatening to seize American nuclear weapons stored on their soil. Finally, there are recently released files concerning an attempt by a terrorist group to penetrate a U.S. nuclear weapons storage site in West Germany.

Number of documents: 2,374
Number of pages: ca. 21,212

Auxiliary aids:
• Introductory essay
• Glossary of acronyms
• Chronology
• Bibliography
• MARC21 catalog records

Sourcing archives:
• U.S. National Archives, Legislative Archives Branch, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. National Archives. Military Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• U.S. National Archives, Civilian Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives, Brussels, Belgium
• National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
• National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands
• National Archives of the UK, Kew, Great Britain
• Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
• Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
• Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
• John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
• Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
• Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California
• Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
• Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia
• Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California
• George H.W. Bush Presidential Library, Houston, Texas
• William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas
• Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
• DOD FOIA Reading Room, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Army Center for Military History, Washington, D.C.
• Naval Historical Center Operational Archives, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
• Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
• Douglas MacArthur Library, Norfolk, Virginia (Douglas MacArthur Papers)
• George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (George C. Marshall Papers)
• Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (George W. Ball Papers)
• National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. (Chuck Hansen Collection)
• Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, Maryland

See also the companion collections Cold War Intelligence, U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991, U.S. Intelligence on Europe, 1945-1995, and U.S. Intelligence on the Middle East, 1945-2009.
Prize Papers Online 3 contains approximately 4,000 interrogations of members of the crew of ships taken during the First, Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (ca. 1652-1674) and the War of the Spanish Succession (ca. 1701-1733). It shows images of each interrogation (of two, three, sometimes even six or more pages). Answers to the fourteen most researched questions are transcribed and stored in a searchable database.

The Anglo-Dutch Wars (First: 1652-1654; Second: 1665-1667; Third: 1672-1674) were a series of wars fought between the English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries for control over the seas and trade routes. The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784) is part of PPO 1.

This collection is part of Prize Papers Online (PPO).

Edited by Andre Bouwman

Codices Hugeniani Online (COHU) offers the fully digitized archive of Christiaan Huygens (1629 - 1695), held at Leiden University Library. The archive includes notebooks and loose leafs with texts in the field of astronomy, mechanics, mathematics and music, as well as correspondence and annotated books.

Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist. He published major studies on mechanics and optics, and a pioneer work on games of chance. He is famous for his discovery of the rings of Saturn and its moon Titan, and for inventing the pendulum clock.

Shortly before his death in 1695 Huygens bequeathed a large part of his scholarly papers to Leiden University Library. After 1800, the legacy was further enriched by manuscripts and letters from family property, amongst others a large number of letters from Huygens' father Constantijn (1596 - 1687).

For over three centuries, many scholars have made the Codices Hugeniani the object of their research. The contents of the archive have been made partly accessible through the well-known Oeuvres complètes (a 19-volume 19th Century reference work). More recently, the Codices Hugeniani were described in detail by Dr. Joella Yoder in her Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Christiaan Huygens (Brill, 2013). With COHU the full archive's contents are now easily accessible for the first time.

Features and benefits

Sections COHU is logically organized in the same way as the original archive, i.e. 52 codices as main entrances, enabling an overview of the archive as a whole.

Advanced search options In each codex the scans are offered in smaller groupings ranging from 1 to several dozen folios each. These groupings are all described with detailed metadata. This offers the possibility of an advanced search for specific topics, etc.

Rich metadata
For a large part the metadata are taken from Joella Yoder’s catalogue. This is the most authoritative overview and the outcome of 20+ years of hard work. The book contains valuable information about the archive that is not in the Leiden University Library's catalogue.

Direct link between famous Oeuvres complètesand archive
The COHU metadata offer a concordance between the physical archive and the Oeuvres complètes.
Sephardic Editions, 1550-1820: Installment 3
Spanish and Portuguese books written and/or published by Sephardic Jews of Early Modern Europe

Library of Jewish heritage
The present selection reflects the impressive cultural achievements of these "New Jews" and former conversos, who are also called Western Sephardim. In communities such as Ferrara, Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, and Bayonne, these Iberians - who had been raised as Catholics, and were largely unaware of Hebrew and formal Judaism - reconnected with their ancestral faith through the creation of an authentic library of Jewish heritage in the Spanish and the Portuguese language.

Modern Jews
Numerous Bibles, prayer books, and a whole range of works on the essentials of Judaism and the duties of a Jew were published in the vernacular. However, book-printing was not limited to re-education in Judaism alone; many of the works written or printed by the former conversos also reflect the broad cultural interest, and the academic background, they had brought with them from Spain and Portugal. Precisely the encounter between Iberian Renaissance culture and the rediscovered Judaism in environments such as the cosmopolitan, tolerant city of Amsterdam, turned these Western Sephardim into the first "modern Jews," as is exemplified by the life and works of such eminent figures as Uriel da Costa, Menasseh ben Israel, and Joseph Penso de la Vega.

Most influential works
This selection comprises the most influential works written or printed by the Iberian Jews in the major centers of the Western Sephardi Diaspora (e.g., the Netherlands, France, Italy, Germany, England); it includes all genres and reflects both their religious and their secular culture. Many of the editions included in Meyer Kayserling's bibliography are exceedingly rare and are available only in specialized collections of Judaica. The aim of the present selection is to make the Sephardi heritage generally available in order to meet the needs of modern scholarship.

Harm den Boer, University of Amsterdam

Various Authors & Editors

Latin-French Book of Hours Manuscripts in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek [National Library of the Netherlands], The Hague

General Background
Books of hours were devotional prayer books designed to be used by the Catholic laity in reciting prayers at the eight traditional “hours” of the canonical day, which ran from “matins” before dawn to “vespers” in the evening and concluded with “compline” at bed time. They were without a doubt the most important and widespread books of the Middle Ages throughout Europe. Originating in the thirteenth century they continued to be made well into the sixteenth century, first as handwritten manuscripts, which by the fifteenth century were increasingly mass produced in workshops in the Low Countries and France, and following the introduction of printing after 1480 also in that format. They were in Latin but also frequently contained material, such as prayers, rubrics, rhymes and calendars of saints’ days, in the vernacular. In general they followed a standardized pattern that usually began with a set of prayers and readings in honor of the Virgin Mary (the so-called “Hours of the Virgin”) and also included the Hours of the Cross, the Hours of the Holy Spirit, the Seven Penitential Psalms and the Office of the Dead. Although generally cut from the same cloth, there was room for local variation within certain texts, called a “use”, for example “use of Paris”. Often material of a personal nature, such as favorite prayers, was inserted into the manuscripts and later into the printed books on pages left blank for this purpose. Marginal notes and jottings of a religious or more profane nature were common and books of hours were used to record family history, such as dates of births and deaths, but also to swear oaths and solemn vows, possession of the bible being still quite limited. They came in all price ranges, from lavish custom-made examples adorned with illuminated miniatures or full-page drawings by professional artists commissioned by nobles or wealthy bourgeois to inexpensive mass produced ones with a few illustrations of poor quality. If a person was likely to have any single book at all during this period, it would have been a book of hours. They were prized possessions meant to be used for both private and public devotion and were passed down to family members or other heirs at an owner’s demise, usually with the injunction to remember the deceased in one’s prayers. As a linchpin of the Catholic religion meant “to offer lay people a suitably slimmed down and simplified share in the Church’s official cycle of daily prayer…” (Duffy 2007, p. 59), it is no wonder that books of hours came under attack during the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century. In countries where the Reformation triumphed such as England, their production and use disappeared. In countries that remained Catholic on the other hand, such as France, printed books of hours continued to circulate, with new editions, often bilingual Latin-French, being issued right down into the twentieth century.

The collection of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Among the medieval manuscripts of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague are 37 Latin Books of Hours that also contain parts in French and are included in the library’s collection of French-language Medieval Manuscripts as catalogued by Anne S. Korteweg, which was micropublished previously by Moran (MMP113). The majority are from the fifteenth century (29), while there are also six manuscripts from the sixteenth century and one each from the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries. They find their provenance in various parts of France and the southern Netherlands and follow different “uses” as explained above, the most common in this collection being Rome (16 examples), followed by Paris (8). Virtually all contain varying numbers of miniatures and other forms of embellishment such as initials and border decorations. The microfiches reproduce the entire text of each manuscript, including all illustrations, in black and white. Their availability will further research into a variety of subjects in art history, history of religion and private life, manuscript studies and text studies.

More details
For complete details of each title, see the draft version of the guide, which can be downloaded from our site: The illustrations can be consulted in color on the Koninklijke Bibliotheek’s website (see link on the front of this flyer, right column).

Reference: Eamon Duffy, Marking the Hours: English People and their Prayers 1240-1570 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007)

Various Authors & Editors

Produced mostly by the Central Newsreel and Documentary Film Studio of China, documentary films and newsreels were two of the major mass media and communication channels in China from the 1950’s through the 1970’s. They covered all aspects of social activities, though the emphasis was on developments and achievements in the building of a socialist country. In order to reach even broader public audiences, government agents produced and printed the transcripts and shot lists for the films and sent them to cities and rural areas. The bulk of the items in the collection are transcripts for the documentary films and newsreels from the Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976. Few of these printed materials have survived due to the poor quality of the paper upon which they were printed. All documents in the collection are in Chinese.

• Dates: (inclusive): 1946-1985
• Languages used: Chinese
• EAD finding aids are available

Location of originals: Duke University Library, Durham
Religious Minorities: The Waldenses
Polemic and historiography of a religious minority between 1510 and 1712

The aim of the Reformation
Nowadays "new" is considered good and "old" obsolete. Values were different in the 16th century, when "antiquity" symbolized truth and goodness. Anything new was suspect. That was why Catholic theologians accused Luther, Zwingli and Calvin of devising a new doctrine and founding new churches. Protestant theologians disagreed, arguing that the aim of the Reformation was to do away with the novelties unrelated to the Bible that popes had introduced over the preceding centuries, such as the doctrines of purgatory, transubstantiation and papal primacy. The Reformation was an effort to restore the "old" doctrine of the "old" church rather than a quest for innovation. As had been the case in the old Apostolic Church, the Bible should once again become the sole standard for the Christian doctrine and way of life.

Return to the Apostolic Church
Protestant theologians interpreted "antiquity" as the return to the Bible and the Apostolic Church rather than continuity with the medieval church. They regarded the Middle Ages as a period in which the Catholic Church had suppressed the old Biblical truth and substituted its own novelties. Even in these dark ages, though, they believed that God had preserved a "remnant" faithful to the Bible. They considered such individuals to be the ones condemned by the Catholic Church as heretics, such as John Wycliffe, Jan Hus and Savonarola, who henceforth counted as "precursors" to the Reformation.

The Waldenses
In 1556 Flacius Illyricus published his major work Catalogus testium veritatis, in which he paid tribute to the Waldenses by assigning them an honorary position in "the chain of witnesses to the truth." The Waldenses were one of the few remaining medieval heretical movements. They had survived all persecutions in the Western Alps on the border between France and Italy. In 1532 they joined the Reformation and by 1556 were starting to form their own communities after the model of Calvin in Geneva. Historically, the Waldenses originated with Peter Waldo of Lyon, who, following the example of the apostles, decided to travel around in poverty as a preacher in 1174. Since the 13th century, however, the Waldenses themselves claimed to have their basis in the apostles. They maintained this stand after joining the Reformation movement.
Flacius Illyricus remained sceptical about this legend. In the 17th century, however, many Dutch Calvinist, Lutheran and Anglican theologians believed the reports in the Waldensian historiographies that this group dated back to the apostles and regarded the adherence of the Waldenses to the Reformation as proof that Protestantism had truly restored the "old" doctrine and church. Henceforth, the Waldenses came to be regarded as "progenitors of the Reformation". This view became so widespread that the Waldenses consistently received political and financial support from Protestants throughout Europe whenever they were persecuted.

Modern histiography
Catholic theologians, on the other hand, had by the Middle Ages already challenged the view that the Waldenses had their basis in the apostles. This polemic climaxed with Bossuet's Histoire des variations published in 1688. The modern historiography of the 19th and 20th centuries has definitively "de-mythologized" the Waldenses by presenting sources linking the Waldenses to Waldo and refuting any ties to the apostles. In addition, it is demonstrated in this historiography that the Waldenses abandoned virtually all their medieval traditions upon joining the Reformation and were therefore definitely not Protestants before the fact.
Nonetheless, the Waldenses retained a special significance in Protestant circles. They continue to be regarded as "precursors" to the Reformation, and some churches in North America, such as the Baptists and the Adventists, even claim to be rooted in the medieval Waldenses.

This collection
This microfiche series documents the historiography and polemic about the Waldenses between 1510 and 1712 and reveals how prominently the Waldenses figured in the debate over whether the Reformation churches were old or new. Accordingly, this series is worthwhile both for historical research on impressions of the Reformation and for the very current question as to the raison d'être of Protestant churches today.
This series features a unique collection of rare books and pamphlets about the Waldenses, of which many are the only copies in existence. They have been collected from thirty libraries, most from the library of the Società di Studi Valdesi in Torre Pellice and the Biblioteca Reale in Turin. This collection is therefore of tremendous value for studying the history of books. The series also comprises the reference works by Crespin, Pantaleon, Flacius Illyricus and Bossuet, which are still immensely important for historical research on "heretical" movements during the Middle Ages and the Protestant "martyrs" of the 16th century.
Reformed Protestantism
5. East Friesland and North-Western Germany

Part I
In the 16th century, the seaport town of Emden at the heart of East Friesland grew into the “mother church” of Dutch Calvinism, which was the driving force behind the Dutch Revolt. Concurrently, in neighbouring North-Western Germany the so-called “second Reformation” took place, that is, the calvinizing of Lutheran lands. From 1555 onwards, the Lutheran cities of Bremen and Hamburg became the scenes of sacramentarian controversies which had an impact far beyond their borders. They marked a critical phase in the transition of German left wing Lutherans to (a form of) Calvinism and in the consolidation processes of the Lutheran and Reformed confessions in North-Western Europe.

• Number of titles: 144
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
• Purchase option: Outright purchase

Location of originals: Johannes a Lasco Library at Emden

Part II
The second part of this collection focuses on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. The collection presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.

• Number of titles: 385
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

The second part of this collection focuses on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. The collection presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.

Location of originals: Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen; Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden; Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Bibliotheek Theologische Universiteit Kampen; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; Universiteitsbibliotheek Maastricht; Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht

This collection is also included in the Reformed Protestantism Sources of the 16th and 17th Centuries collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Catalogue of French-language Medieval Manuscripts in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek [Royal Library of the Netherlands] and Meermanno-Westreenianum Museum, The Hague
Compiled by Edith Brayer, Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, Paris

On microfiche

With a printed guide and introduction by Anne S. Korteweg, Curator of Manuscripts, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague

The catalogue
In the early 1950s the well-known Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes (IRHT) in Paris sent its staff researcher Edith Brayer on a mission to describe and analyze medieval manuscripts in the French language held by various libraries in Europe. One of her stops was The Hague, where in 1954 and 1956 she spent months studying, analyzing and describing the relevant manuscripts in the collections of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library ) (112) and the Meermanno-Westreenianum Museum for the History of the Book (19). The manuscripts originated in France, the southern Netherlands (Belgium) and in one case England. Her efforts resulted in a catalogue in French of some 1,500 typed pages kept in the Section Romane of the IRHT and never before published in any form.
In addition to the manuscripts of the two collections above, she further described some 90 transcriptions of medieval French manuscripts made at the end of the eighteenth century by G.J. Gérard (1734-1814), also held in the Royal Library. The historian Gérard was secretary of the Academy of Sciences and Letters in the southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and librarian of the famous Burgundian Library in Brussels. Over the years he had made many transcriptions of manuscripts held in that library, in the library of the Chambre des Comptes in Lille and in private collections. Some of these manuscripts can still be traced in the Royal Library in Brussels and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, but for others Gérard's transcription is all that remains.

Contents of the catalogue
The descriptions in the catalogue consist of:
• an extensive codicological analysis of the manuscript, with collation and description of the decoration and miniatures
• an extensive analysis of the text, with transcription of the rubricated chapter and section headings
• transcriptions of important passages, such as prologues, incipits and explicits, and in the case of manuscripts with poems, sonnets, etc. extensive transcriptions of these as well
• an overview of the history of the manuscript
• an overview of the most important literature on the manuscript
The microfiche edition also contains a complete list compiled by Anne S. Korteweg, Curator of Manuscripts of the Royal Library in The Hague, of all the miniatures found in the illuminated manuscripts to supplement the descriptions made by Mademoiselle Brayer. In addition an article by Mlle Brayer is included that she published in the Bulletin d'information de l'Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes from 1964, in which she analyzed the French texts of some 40 Books of Hours (prayer books for lay people normally written in Latin in France and the southern Netherlands, but usually also containing a number of texts or prayers in French). With the inclusion of this article all the work done by Mlle Brayer in The Hague has been brought together and this important documentation system has been made available to aid scholars in their research.

Printed guide
The microfiches are accompanied by a guide written in English by Anne S. Korteweg, with short-title descriptions of all the manuscripts from the collection of the IRHT, supplemented by some 20 manuscripts for which no description is available, thus providing a complete overview of all the medieval manuscripts in French held by both institutions in The Hague. Furthermore, additional information on the provenance of the manuscripts has been included as well as the most recent bibliographical references, indices of shelf marks, authors and titles, scribes, illuminators, bookbinders, and former owners.