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The Opus arduum valde is a Latin commentary on the Book of Revelation, written in England by an unknown scholarly author in the years 1389–1390. The book originated from the early Wycliffite movement and reflects its experience of persecution in apocalyptic terms. In England it soon fell into oblivion, but was adopted by radical exponents of the fifteenth-century Bohemian Hussites. In the sixteenth century Luther obtained a copy of the Opus arduum valde which he had printed in Wittenberg with his own preface in 1528. This remarkable document of religious dissent in late medieval Europe, highly regarded in Lollard and Hussite studies, is now for the first time made available in a critical edition.
The Gospel According to Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) offers an annotated translation of Tabyīn al-kalām (Part 3), a commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew (Chapters 1-5) by one of South Asia’s most innovative public thinkers. Broadly known for his modernist interpretation of Islam, Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) appears here as a contemplative mystic who is determined to show the interrelated nature of the Bible and Qur’ān, and the affinity of Christian and Muslim scriptural exegesis.

Uncommon in the history of Christian-Muslim relations, Sayyid Ahmad Khan presents what can only be described as a serious reading of the Gospel. The work includes an extensive introduction to the early Church in general, and the development of the Trinitarian doctrine in particular. Never before presented in English, the text sheds important new light upon the spiritual and intellectual journey of this leading modern interpreter.
This volume in the ASD series (VIII, 1) publishes texts by Erasmus related to the Fathers of the Church. Erasmus himself considered these among his major contributions to Christianity and the Church. He edited many Fathers and wrote Vitae of three theologians: John Chrysostom, Origen and – his most important one – Jerome. He provides portraits of the theologians and his views on them, but also a kind of self-portrait. He even forged a text himself: ‘Cyprian’s De duplici martyrio’. His many editions of the Church Fathers and other theologians contain prefaces which provide us with information about the theologians, and with remarks on Erasmus’ views on them. Thus, we get a clearer understanding of Erasmus and his theology.
The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament has proven to be a valuable resource for scholars and students. In this online edition the complete vocabulary of the Hebrew Bible, including texts in Aramaic, is available. The dictionary combines scholarly thoroughness with easy accessibility, and so meets the needs of a wide range of users.

The enormous advances that have taken place in the field of Semitic linguistics since the days of the older dictionaries of Classical Hebrew are well documented and assessed, as well as the often detailed discussions in modern Bible commentaries of words where the meaning is particularly difficult. The alphabetical ordering of entries rather than the traditional arrangement of words according to their roots is particularly helpful to the new student, and also saves the advanced user much time.
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Editor / Translator: Robert W. Thomson
This is the first translation of the twelfth century Armenian commentary on the death of John the Evangelist as found in the Acts of John. The last section of the apocryphal life of the Evangelist became detached from the whole, and circulated widely in the churches of east and west. The Armenian version was included in service books, Bibles, and collections of saints’ lives. Yet no medieval commentary on that brief text is known in any other language.
Nersēs of Lambron [1153-1198], Archbishop of Tarsus, was a prolific author and an influential player in the ecclesiastical politics of his era. He used this work as a medium for spiritual reflection, and for an exposition of the Armenian tradition as opposed to the theologies of the Greek and Syrian churches.
The ‘Christian Chapter’ of the Jāvidān-nāma-yi kabīr by Faḍl Allāh Astarābādī (d. 796/1394)
In Christian Apocalyptic Texts in Islamic Messianic Discourse Orkhan Mir-Kasimov offers an account of the interpretation of these Christian texts by Faḍl Allāh Astarābādī (d. 796/1394), the founder of a mystical and messianic movement which was influential in medieval Iran and Anatolia. This interpretation can be situated within the tradition of ‘positive’ Muslim hermeneutics of the Christian and Jewish scriptures which was particularly developed in Shıīʿī and especially Ismaīʿlī circles. Faḍl Allāh incorporates the Christian apocalyptic texts into an Islamic eschatological context, combining them with Qurʾān and ḥadīth material. In addition to an introductory study, the book contains a critical edition and an English translation of the relevant passages from Faḍl Allāh’s magnum opus, the Jāvidān-nāma-yi kabīr.
al-Radd al-jamīl attributed to al-Ghazālī (d. 1111) is the most extensive and detailed refutation of the divinity of Jesus by a Muslim author in the classical period of Islam. Since the discovery of the manuscript in the 1930’s scholars have debated whether the great Muslim theologian al-Ghazālī was really the author.

This is a new critical edition of the Arabic text and the first complete English translation. The introduction situates this work in the history of Muslim anti-Christian polemical writing. Mark Beaumont and Maha El Kaisy-Friemuth argue that this refutation comes from an admirer of al-Ghazālī who sought to advance some of his key ideas for an Egyptian audience.
Where can you find information about the Vulgate or Qohelet, the Septuagint of Esther, or the Targum of Jeremiah? Which biblical book was translated into which languages? What is the manuscript evidence and the text-critical? value of each language tradition?

In textual criticism today, the study of the versions and of different manuscripts traditions has become fragmented. With such fragmentation of expertise come boundaries that make communication between the various subfields increasingly difficult.
THB brings together all available information regarding the textual history and character, translation techniques, manuscripts, and the importance of each textual witness for each biblical and deutero-canonical book.

The Textual History of the Bible comprises:
Volumes 1A, 1B and 1C: The Hebrew Bible (129 authors, 340 articles and c.2000 pages)
Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C: Deuterocanonical Scriptures (110 authors, 240 articles and c.1300 pages)
Volumes 3 A, 3B, 3C and 3D: A Companion to Textual Criticism

- 3A: The History of Research of Textual Criticism (2021)
- 3B: Modern Printed Editions of the Hebrew Bible, Its Versions, and Cognate Scriptures (2022/2023)
- 3C: Theory and Practice of Textual Criticism (2024)
- 3D: Science, Technology and Textual Criticism (2022/2023)

The Textual History of the Bible is also available online.

Preview of the Textual History of the Bible 2017 Preview.


Preview of the Textual History of the Bible 2020 Volume 3 .
Editors: Rifaat Ebied and David Thomas
Acknowledged as a leading medical expert in his day, and secretary to a succession of caliphs in the mid-ninth century, the Nestorian Christian ʿAlī ibn Rabban al-Ṭabarī converted to Islam around the age of 70. He then wrote Radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā, a recantation of his former faith, and Kitāb al-dīn wa-l-dawla, a defence of the Prophet Muḥammad based substantially on biblical proof-texts. The range of arguments he produced against the soundness of his former faith in these two works influenced sections of Islamic scholarship for many centuries.
These new editions and translations of his works are based on all the available evidence for the texts, accompanied by extensive introductions and studies of their place in Islamic thought.



The Dead Sea Scrolls represents perhaps the most significant historical manuscript discovery in recent history. Brill’s Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Non-Biblical Texts offers a unique opportunity to study state of the art photographs of these ancient scripts, and understand their meaning using the translations of text and interpretations for missing fragments.

The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Non-Biblical Texts provides users with a comprehensive tool for the study of the non-biblical texts from the Judean Desert (the “Dead Sea Scrolls”). It contains high resolution images of the Non-Biblical Dead Sea Scroll fragments and all the texts, in the original languages and in translation. It enables content searching using a sophisticated inventory, and examining finer details of the original texts through search options and zoom possibilities for the images. Never before has such comprehensive information been available in one place.

The complete collection consists of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Non-Biblical Texts and the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts. Used side by side, these databases offer the user access to all the Dead Sea Scrolls texts.

This online product is based on The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library CD-ROM, published by Brill and Brigham Young University, 1999.
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