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Editors: William W. Hallo and Younger
The "first half of history" covers the interval between the invention of writing in Sumer and the floruit of classical Greece. During these two and a half millennia (ca. 3000-500 BCE), the Near East is the primary locus of written documentation, and thus the place where the emergence of humanity's achievements can be followed in detail. Two centuries of persistent exploration of the Near East have led to the recovery of much of this documentation, and the recovery continues at an unabated pace. The discoveries made in the field, and their interpretation in the scholarly literature, are brought to the attention of a wide public in three volumes, prepared by leading scholars in all the principal language areas of the ancient Near East.
The first volume, Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World, is devoted to "literary" texts - those responses to the world about them by which the creative minds of antiquity sought to come to terms with their environment, real or imaginary. The second volume, Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World, emphasizes "historical" texts: the monuments in which the rulers attempted to memorialize their achievements and lesser mortals expressed their loyalty or piety. The third volume, Archival Documents from the Biblical World, incorporates "economic" texts - the unassuming records of daily life which nonetheless go far toward permitting the reconstruction of social, legal and commercial institutions that concerned the majority of humanity.
All these canons, monuments and documents provide the context in which Biblical literature flowered. They have therefore been selected in part to illuminate the comparisons or contrasts with specific Biblical passages that have been identified in the scholarly literature. These passages are identified in each selection, and in the extensive bibliography provided. Other selections have been made to illustrate the range of the ancient documentation, or to highlight new discoveries. Elaborate indices are designed to call attention, not only to Biblical parallels, but to those among the ancient sources themselves.
This authoritative three-volume reference work is an invaluable research tool and essential reading for all those engaged in the study of the Hebrew Bible in its ancient Near Eastern context.
Editors: William W. Hallo and Younger
The Context of Scripture illuminatingly presents the multi-faceted world of ancient writing that forms the colourful background to the literature of the Hebrew Bible. Designed as a thorough and durable reference work for all engaged in the study of the Bible and the Ancient Near East, and involving many of the world’s outstanding scholars in the field, it provides reliable access to a broad, balanced and representative collection of Ancient Near Eastern texts that have some bearing on the interpretation of the Bible. Translations of recently discovered texts are included, alongside new translations of better-known texts and in some cases the best existing translations of such texts.

The substantial three-volume work, with its specially designed page layout and large format, features full cross-referencing to comparable Bible passages, and new, up-to-date bibliographical annotations with judicious commentary. Its many distinct advantages over other collections will ensure the place of The Context of Scripture as a standard reference work for the 21st century.

Volume II, Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World, is devoted to building and votive inscriptions, seals, weights, treaties, collections of laws, and other genres originally inscribed on durable mediums or in multiple copies for long-term survival. Many are royal inscriptions, and nearly all are crucial to the reconstruction of the history of the Biblical world.
Editors: William W. Hallo and Younger
The Context of Scripture illuminatingly presents the multi-faceted world of ancient writing that forms the colourful background to the literature of the Hebrew Bible. Designed as a thorough and durable reference work for all engaged in the study of the Bible and the Ancient Near East, and involving many of the world’s outstanding scholars in the field, it provides reliable access to a broad, balanced and representative collection of Ancient Near Eastern texts that have some bearing on the interpretation of the Bible. Translations of recently discovered texts are included, alongside new translations of better-known texts and in some cases the best existing translations of such texts.

The substantial three-volume work, with its specially designed page layout and large format, features full cross-referencing to comparable Bible passages, and new, up-to-date bibliographical annotations with judicious commentary. Its many distinct advantages over other collections will ensure the place of The Context of Scripture as a standard reference work for the 21st century.

Volume 3, Archival Documents from the Biblical World, provides a generous selection from the vast number of legal, commercial and private documents preserved from pre-classical antiquity. These courtcases, contracts, accounts and letters, so often slighted or underrepresented in older anthologies, throw a bright light on the daily life of ordinary human beings as recorded by their contemporaries. In addition, exhaustive indices to all three volumes identify and classify all proper names and many of the themes struck throughout the work. With this third Volume The Context of Scripture is completed.
Author: Donald Parry
Editor: Emanuel Tov
This edition presents for the first time all the non-biblical Qumran texts classified according to their genres, together with English translations. Of these texts, some twenty were not previously published. The Hebrew-Aramaic texts in this edition are mainly based on the FARMS database of Brigham Young University, which, in its turn, reflects the text editions of the ancient scrolls (mainly DJD) with great precision, including modern diacritical signs. The Reader consists of six individual parts. The purpose of the classification is to enhance the research facilities of the individual texts within their respective genres, especially in courses at Universities and Colleges.
Author: Donald Parry
Editor: Emanuel Tov
This edition presents for the first time all the non-biblical Qumran texts classified according to their genres, together with English translations. Of these texts, some twenty were not previously published. The Hebrew-Aramaic texts in this edition are mainly based on the FARMS database of Brigham Young University, which, in its turn, reflects the text editions of the ancient scrolls (mainly DJD) with great precision, including modern diacritical signs. The Reader consists of six individual parts. The purpose of the classification is to enhance the research facilities of the individual texts within their respective genres, especially in courses at Universities and Colleges.
Author: Donald Parry
Editor: Emanuel Tov
This edition presents for the first time all the non-biblical Qumran texts classified according to their genres, together with English translations. Of these texts, some twenty were not previously published. The Hebrew-Aramaic texts in this edition are mainly based on the FARMS database of Brigham Young University, which, in its turn, reflects the text editions of the ancient scrolls (mainly DJD) with great precision, including modern diacritical signs. The Reader consists of six individual parts. The purpose of the classification is to enhance the research facilities of the individual texts within their respective genres, especially in courses at Universities and Colleges.
Author: Donald Parry
Editor: Emanuel Tov
This edition presents for the first time all the non-biblical Qumran texts classified according to their genres, together with English translations. Of these texts, some twenty were not previously published. The Hebrew-Aramaic texts in this edition are mainly based on the FARMS database of Brigham Young University, which, in its turn, reflects the text editions of the ancient scrolls (mainly DJD) with great precision, including modern diacritical signs. The Reader consists of six individual parts. The purpose of the classification is to enhance the research facilities of the individual texts within their respective genres, especially in courses at Universities and Colleges.
Author: Donald Parry
Editor: Emanuel Tov
This edition presents for the first time all the non-biblical Qumran texts classified according to their genres, together with English translations. Of these texts, some twenty were not previously published. The Hebrew-Aramaic texts in this edition are mainly based on the FARMS database of Brigham Young University, which, in its turn, reflects the text editions of the ancient scrolls (mainly DJD) with great precision, including modern diacritical signs. The Reader consists of six individual parts. The purpose of the classification is to enhance the research facilities of the individual texts within their respective genres, especially in courses at Universities and Colleges.
Author: Donald Parry
Editor: Emanuel Tov
This edition presents for the first time all the non-biblical Qumran texts classified according to their genres, together with English translations. Of these texts, some twenty were not previously published. The Hebrew-Aramaic texts in this edition are mainly based on the FARMS database of Brigham Young University, which, in its turn, reflects the text editions of the ancient scrolls (mainly DJD) with great precision, including modern diacritical signs. The Reader consists of six individual parts. The purpose of the classification is to enhance the research facilities of the individual texts within their respective genres, especially in courses at Universities and Colleges.
The first part of a 2-volume work, this is a practical reference tool to facilitate access to the Qumran collection of the Dead Sea Scrolls. It contains newly edited Hebrew and Aramaic transcriptions and English translations of the non-biblical scrolls on facing pages, arranged by serial number from Cave 1 to Cave 11. In addition, it offers a summary of the contents of the biblical scrolls from Qumran. Each Q-number is provided with a heading which contains the essential information on the text and selected bibliographical references. Although unidentified and unclassified fragments have been omitted, and no snippets of manuscripts have been reproduced, this edition aims to be complete for the non-biblical scrolls.
The work is primarily intended for classroom use and for use by specialists from other disciplines who need a reliable compendium to all the materials found. It will also be useful as a companion for those studying the original manuscripts using the microfiche or CD-ROM editions of the scrolls.