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The corpus of Aramaic magic bowls from Sasanian Mesopotamia is perhaps the most important source we have for studying the everyday beliefs and practices of the Jewish, Christian, Mandaean, Manichaean, Zoroastrian and Pagan communities on the eve of the Islamic conquests. The bowls published in this volume are from the Schøyen Collection, which has over 650 texts in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Mandaic and Syriac, and forms the largest collection of its kind in the world. This volume presents editions of fifty-five Jewish Babylonian Aramaic texts, with accompanying introductions, translations, philological notes, photographs and indices. The themes covered are magical seals and signet-rings. It is the second in a multi-volume project that aims to publish the Schøyen Collection of magic bowls.
Historical criticism of the Bible emerged in the context of protestant theology and is confronted in every aspect of its study with otherness: the Jewish people and their writings. However, despite some important exceptions, there has been little sustained reflection on the ways in which scholarship has engaged, and continues to engage, its most significant Other. This volume offers reflections on anti-Semitism, philo-Semitism and anti-Judaism in biblical scholarship from the 19th century to the present. The essays in this volume reflect on the past and prepare a pathway for future scholarship that is mindful of its susceptibility to violence and hatred.
The study of the laws of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the light of ancient rabbinic law, and vice versa, by a master of both corpora, sheds light on their interpretation, their history, and the spiritual stances they bespeak. The thirty-two studies united in this volume, a selection of Baumgarten’s work in the three decades that followed the appearance of his Studies in Qumran Law (Brill, 1977), focus on legal concerns, both general and detailed, shared by the Qumran sectarians and the ancient rabbis—concerns that elicited responses that were sometimes similar, sometimes different, even to the extent of arousing polemics.
The Apocalypse of Abraham is a pseudepigraphal work that narrates Abraham’s rejection of idol worship and his subsequent ascent to heaven, where he is shown eschatological secrets through angelic mediation. This fascinating text was only preserved in Old Church Slavonic and must be studied as both a medieval Christian and an ancient Jewish text. This monograph addresses the following questions:
-Why were medieval Slavs translating and reading Jewish pseudepigrapha?
-How much, if at all, did they emend or edit the Apocalypse of Abraham?
-When in antiquity was it most likely written?
-What were its ancient Jewish social and theological contexts?
Author: Hedda Klip
This book is the first comprehensive study completely dedicated to all biblical genealogies. It provides a form-critical analysis of these genealogies and defines basic patterns and deviations. Helpful charts guide you towards the distinctive characteristics of these patterns. The last chapter of the book summarises all genealogical information on women in their different roles as daughters, sisters, and wives. The book includes a short comparison to the presence of women in the genealogies in the Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum.
The IOS Annual Volume 21: “Carrying a Torch to Distant Mountains”, brings forth cutting-edge studies devoted to a wide array of fields and disciplines of the Middle East. The three sections—the Ancient Near East, Semitic Languages and Linguistics, and Arabic Language and Literature—include sixteen articles. In the Ancient Near East section are studies devoted to Babylonian literature (Gabbay and Wasserman; Ayali-Darshan), history (Cohen and Torrecilla), and language (Zadok). The Semitic Languages and Linguistics section contains discussions about comparative Semitics—Egyptian and Modern South Arabic (Borg; Cerqueglini), Aramaic dialects (Khan; Stadel), Palestinian Arabic (Arnold; Procházka), and Tigre and Ethiosemitic languages (Voigt). The final section of Arabic Language and Literature is devoted to ʿArabiyya and its grammarians (Dror, Versteegh, Sheyhatovitch, Kasher, and Sadan).
In Johannine Social Identity Formation after the Fall of the Jerusalem Temple Christopher Porter reads the Fourth Gospel through the lens of social identity theory as means of reconciling the social dislocation and trauma of the destruction of the Jerusalem temple. Analysing the Fourth Gospel in conversation with other temple-removed texts of Qumran, Philo, and Josephus the gospel’s intent to renegotiate cultic life without the temple can be seen. Through this analysis it is argued that the Fourth Gospel primarily functions as an intra-mural Jewish text, attempting to negotiate the formation of a Jesus-follower social identity in direct continuity with earlier Jewish shared social narratives. Finally, this work reviews the Johannine Community as an outcome of the Gospel identity formation.
Religion, Ethnicity, and the Shaping of Jesus-Oriented Jewishness in the Fourth Gospel
In John within Judaism, Wally V. Cirafesi offers a reading of the Gospel of John as an expression of the fluid and flexible nature of Jewish identity in Greco-Roman antiquity. While many have noted John’s general Jewishness, few have given it a seat at the ideologically congested table of ancient Jewish practice and belief.
By interrogating the concept of “Judaism” in relation to the complex categories of “religion” and “ethnicity,” Cirafesi argues that John negotiates Jewishness using strategies of ethnic identity formation paralleled in other Jewish sources from the Second Temple and early rabbinic periods. In this process of negotiation, including its use of “high christology” and critique of Ioudaioi, John coalesces with other expressions of ancient Jewish identity and, thus, can be read “within Judaism.”
Doublets, Textual Divination, and the Formation of the Book of Jeremiah
The biblical book of Jeremiah was frequently expanded and revised through duplication by anonymous scribes in ancient Judea. Who were these scribes? What gave them the authority to revise divinatory texts like Jeremiah? And when creating duplicates, what did they think they were doing? In Scribes Writing Scripture: Doublets, Textual Divination, and the Formation of Jeremiah, Justus Theodore Ghormley explores possible answers to these questions. The scribes who revised Jeremiah are textual diviners akin to divining scribal scholars of ancient Near Eastern royal courts; and their practice of expanding Jeremiah through duplication involves techniques of textual divination comparable the practice of textual divination utilized in the formation of ancient Near Eastern divinatory texts.
This book conducts a focused study of contradictions and coherence in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. The first section of this study examines the apparent disruption of congruity with regard to the vertical dimension of the Targum, that is, between the Torah (the Hebrew Vorlage) and the Targum (the Aramaic translation). The second section addresses the apparent disruption of congruity with regard to the horizontal dimension of the Targum, that is, within the boundaries of the TgPsJ corpus. Ultimately, this work suggests that the contradictions are given to resolution, once the greater context of biblical and Jewish tradition is taken into consideration.