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The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (1232-1492) was the last Islamic state in al-Andalus. It has long been considered a historical afterthought, even an anomaly, but this impression must be rectified: here we place the kingdom in a new context, within the processes of change that were taking place across all Western Islamic societies in the late Middle Ages. Despite being the last Islamic entity in the Iberian Peninsula, Granada was neither isolated nor exclusively associated with the nearest Islamic lands. The special relationship between Nasrid territory and the surrounding Christian states accelerated historical processes of change. This volume edited by Adela Fábregas examines the Nasrid kingdom through its politics, society, economics, and culture.

Contributors: Daniel Baloup, Bárbara Boloix-Gallardo, María Elena Díez Jorge, Adela Fábregas, Ángel Galán Sánchez, Alberto García Porras, Expiración García Sánchez, Raúl González Arévalo, Pierre Guichard, Antonio Malpica Cuello, Christine Mazzoli-Guintard, Rafael G. Peinado, Antonio Peláez Rovira, José Miguel Puerta Vílchez, María Dolores Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Carlos Ruiz Souza, Roser Salicrú i Lluch, Bilal Sarr, Francisco Vidal-Castro, Gerard Wiegers, Amalia Zomeño.
Author: Nadja Danilenko
In Picturing the Islamicate World, Nadja Danilenko explores the message of the first preserved maps from the Islamicate world. Safeguarded in al-Iṣṭakhrī’s Book of Routes and Realms (10th century C.E.), the world map and twenty regional maps complement the text to a reference book of the territories under Muslim rule. Rather than shaping the Islamicate world according to political or religious concerns, al-Iṣṭakhrī chose a timeless design intended to outlast upheavals. Considering the treatise was transmitted for almost a millennium, al-Iṣṭakhrī’s strategy seems to have paid off. By investigating the Persian and Ottoman translations and all extant manuscripts, Nadja Danilenko unravels the manuscript tradition of al-Iṣṭakhrī’s work, revealing who took an interest in it and why.
Der Kaiser war der Bevölkerung im Römischen Reich auf vielfältige Weise präsent, durch Statuen auf öffentlichen Plätzen, sein Bildnis auf Münzen oder seinen Namen in Inschriften. Dabei waren seine Untertanen nicht nur Rezipienten kaiserlicher Selbstdarstellung, sondern beteiligten sich auch aktiv an der Ausgestaltung der kaiserlichen Repräsentation mit ihren eigenen Vorstellungen und Erwartungen. Dieses Thema wird in Dialogangebote. Die Anrede des Kaisers jenseits der offiziellen Titulatur erstmals am Beispiel der sog. inoffiziellen Titulaturen auf breiter Quellenbasis untersucht. Dabei werden diese ehrenden Epitheta in ihrer diachronen Entwicklung von Augustus bis Severus Alexander (27 v. Chr. – 235 n. Chr.) und ihren thematischen, medialen, funktionalen und sozialen Kontexten analysiert. Die Untersuchung arbeitet die wichtige Rolle der Untertanen für die Herrscherrepräsentation heraus und bietet neue Einblicke in die Bedeutung dieses Phänomens für die reziproke Kommunikation zwischen Kaiser und Untertanen.

The people of the Roman Empire encountered the emperor in many different ways, such as through statues in public places, his portrait on coins or his name in inscriptions. In these encounters, his subjects were not merely recipients of imperial self-expression, but also expressed their own ideas and expectations. Dialogangebote. Die Anrede des Kaisers jenseits der offiziellen Titulatur is the first study of this dynamic to make use of the rich Latin and Greek source material for the so-called unofficial titulature. These honorific epithets are analysed in their diachronic development from Augustus to Severus Alexander (27 BCE – 235 CE) and discussed in their thematic, media, functional and social contexts. The study fleshes out the important role played by the subjects in the representation of rulers and offers new insights into the importance of this phenomenon for the reciprocal communication between emperors and subjects.
Editor: Katrine Wong
Eastern and Western Synergies and Imaginations: Texts and Histories is a product of east-west studies crossed with adaptation studies: it goes beyond evaluation of cultural interactions and discussion of forms and manners of adaptation. This volume brings together critical discourses from various cultural locales which have developed from and thrived on the notion of “East meets West” or “West meets East”. The 10 chapters trace and investigate cross-, trans- or multi-cultural interpretations of fictional and non-fictional narratives that feature people and events in cities and regions which thrive, or have thrived, as East-West hubs, thereby expounding multiple layers of relationship between source texts and new texts. An allegorical play, The Three Ladies of Macao, premièred in December 2016, is now published as appendix in this volume.
Author: Albert Wolf

Abstract

In this paper, I examine one component of the Peace of Westphalia: the use of biased or non-neutral mediators. Biased mediators made a significant, but not the only, contribution to the Peace of Westphalia. Contrary to the received wisdom, biased mediators can be effective in forging peace because they have a vested interest in the success or failure of a settlement, whereas neutral mediators do not have the same stakes at play. I examine the role biased mediators may play in the ongoing nuclear crisis between the U.S. and Iran.

In: Journal of Applied History

Abstract

This article revisits the Cutter Incident in the United States in April 1955 when mass-produced doses of polio vaccine containing insufficiently inactivated (killed) live polio virus were released to the U.S. public. The Cutter Incident also affected subsequent vaccine development and these lessons remain relevant in the international quest to create a rapidly developed vaccine for COVID-19. The Cutter Incident shows how things can go wrong when a vaccine is manufactured in haste and without adequate safety precautions during mass-production. In the article’s later section, liability without fault, among other consequences resulting from the incident, are also assessed in the context of current vaccine development through Operation Warp Speed, the public-private partnership funded by the U.S. government to develop a remedy for COVID-19.

In: Journal of Applied History
Carl von Clausewitz is still considered one of the most important writers on military strategy. In Prussian Military Thought 1815-1830: Beyond Clausewitz , Jacek Jędrysiak offers a new perspective on the context of his legacy, with a detailed analysis of Prussian military thought after the Napoleonic wars and an examination of the development of certain institutions, such as the General Staff, leading to a more nuanced understanding of Clausewitz’s work. The dominance of the famous figures of Clausewitz and Helmuth von Moltke the Elder has obscured much about the Prussian army in the 19th century. In this study, Jacek Jędrysiak reveals the forgotten face of the Prussian army.
Author: Deb Anderson

Abstract

Local news media play a key role in fostering citizen participation in public life and offer communities forms of supportive action during crisis, which lie at the heart of compassion. Through the lens of emotion, we can see that ‘the story’ of local disaster reporting is one of being local, where the journalist’s position between involved actor and interpretive observer is anchored in compassion for the local. In turn, a focus on compassion illuminates the power of oral history as a means to contextualise the experience of disaster – in this case, how cyclones are made culturally meaningful – and expand media research on climate-related disaster.

In: Emotions: History, Culture, Society

Abstract

Thomas Dixon makes the important point that modern anger is nothing like the seemingly parallel phenomena (ira, mênis and so on) of the past. He proposes to show how different it is by employing what he calls an anatomical-genealogical approach – tracing components of the present idea of anger to their antecedents. He criticises my own work on anger as ahistorical because I use the singular term rather than the plurals that the subject demands. I find his critique unconvincing and his approach problematic. I suggest that we explore past notions of anger (and other emotions as well) in their own lived contexts rather than by separate components.

In: Emotions: History, Culture, Society
Author: Diana G. Barnes

Abstract

This essay argues that animal-human compassion, defined as human fellow-feeling with (and not for) animals, is most urgently articulated at points of crisis in human history, such as the terrible bushfires and drought of the Australian summer of 2019–20. Literary history, particularly of pastoral literature, reveals animal-human compassion as a long-contested structure of feeling. The pastoral template established in classical literature, and refined in early modern literature, sets conventions for proper human-animal emotional relations. These ideals are radically destabilised in Andrew Marvell’s ‘dark pastoral’ civil war poetry. This troubled legacy flows through Australian settler-colonial writing about animals, particularly the kangaroo; Barron Field, Charles Harpur and Ethel Pedley strive to intervene in the patriotic myth-making associated with colonial settlement and Federation.

In: Emotions: History, Culture, Society