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Jan Koenderink

In the visual arts, one often composes a spatially organised array of elements. These elements are often roughly uniform patches (‘macchie’) and edges. These are mutually complementary and often imply each other. ‘Edges’ may either divide or unite macchie, whereas adjacent macchie may imply an edge. Edges may be common boundaries as in cloisonnism, or be one-sided as in outline. Composition often requires that edges be ‘lost’, either to avoid the dreaded silhouette effect, or to merge macchie that are semantically distinct, like figure and ground. This leads to planned ‘passages’ or various modulations of edge quality, the ‘lost & found’ quality being most common. I relate such conventional artistic devices to the concept of ‘edge’ in image processing and human vision.

Nicolas Bisson and Simon Grondin

Despite its abundant literature, the timing research field does not offer any comparison of prospective and retrospective time estimates emerging from a within-subjects design. Likewise, the relationships between these estimates and individual factors, within such a design, have never been investigated. The present study addresses these issues. Ninety-two participants retrospectively and prospectively estimated the duration of an Internet surfing task and completed several questionnaires (e.g., personality). Results showed that (a) prospective time estimates were longer than retrospective ones for only 58% of the participants and (b) the relationships between individual factors and time estimates differed as a function of the fact that a participant had or not a longer prospective time estimate. The discussion explains the methodological, theoretical and practical impacts emerging from this new method for studying the relationships between individual factors and time estimates in daily life-like situations.

Tianna Loose, Didier Acier and Ghassan El-Baalbaki

We aimed to investigate (1) bivariate associations between alcohol use, time perspective, temporal competency, and personality traits; (2) the extent to which different temporal scales predicted alcohol use in order to select constructs most related to alcohol use; and (3) the most related temporalities as mediators between personality traits and alcohol use. French (n = 389) and Canadian (n = 478) college students responded to questionnaires online. Analyses included (1) correlations between measures; (2) three multiple regressions in which different sets of temporalities (ZTPI, TCT-5D, a combination of scales) predicted alcohol use; (2) five multiple parallel mediator models, in which one big-5 trait was entered as a distal factor leading to alchol use through the parallel mediators of temporalities. Most temporal dimensions were correlated with alcohol use and a unique set of personality traits. The combination of temporal scales (past negative, present hedonist, anticipation, temporal rupture) predicted alcohol use better than any other instrument. All personality traits explained alcohol use through different sets of temporalities. Cases of indirect only and competitive mediation were observed. Personality traits explained alcohol consumption through the multiple parallel mediators of temporalities. In some cases (neuroticism, openness and agreeableness) temporalities had to be taken into account in order to observe an effect of personality on alcohol use which helps explain inconsistencies in the literature. Future work may benefit from taking into account combinations of temporal dimensions in order to best explain (drinking) behaviors, including but not limited to the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

Robert Pepperell

This illustrated essay highlights some conceptual problems that arise when we consider the nature of visual perception and its relationship to art. Science proceeds on the assumption that natural phenomena operate rationally and can be explained rationally. Yet the study of art shows that many ordinary acts of perception, such as looking at a picture, can be paradoxical, logically contradictory and self-referential. I conclude that we must confront these problems if we are to reconcile the scientific approach to explaining visual perception with artistic and philosophical discoveries.

Ian Verstegen, Tamara Prest and Laura Messina Argenton

This qualitative report concerns a larger study on pictorial continuous narrative devised by Alberto Argenton and developed by the authors in his memory, reporting only a synthesis of the main findings obtained through the study of a corpus of 100 artworks on the Genesis story of Adam and Eve. The study was aimed at identifying the perceptual–representational strategies used by artists to visually tell this story in the continuous narrative mode. The pilot study, accomplished by three independent judges (the authors) on the corpus of artworks, adopting phenomenological observation, highlights four strategies used by artists to distinguish and link the episodes or events constituting the story: segmentation of episodes or events, time/space separating cues, vectors of direction and repetition of principal figures. A description of the above categories accompanied by some illustrative examples is given.

Tianna Loose, Didier Acier, Jean Luc Pilet, Aurore Deledalle and Ghassan El-Baalbaki

We developed and validated a new version of our test of temporal competency. In three studies we (1) defined dimensions, created items and studied face and content validity; (2) examined dimensionality and reliability; and (3) confirmed factor structure and studied convergent validity. Focus groups were held in which we drew up temporal concepts that articulated well with clinical observations. We derived a questionnaire that was administered to French young people and this data was used to reduce the questionnaire to 15 items. Reliability and validity of the 15-item version was studied among samples: French college, French high school, and Québec college. Five dimensions were defined and retained: anticipation, full present, temporal rupture, past, future. 15 items explained 68% of variance. The model provided adequate fit in confirmatory analyses across samples. Scales converged with hypothesized dimensions of the ZTPI and scales mostly maintained acceptable reliability. Conceptual issues with ZTPI were addressed, possibly rectified and discussed in light of clinical practice. The past was defined by how much one grows from experience independently of how ‘happy’ or ‘sad’ events were. Full present and temporal rupture relate to living in the now, the first by means of flow and engagement, the second by means of addictive behaviors. Future entailed a projection unto uncertainty, whereas anticipation defined adapting behavior in order to achieve short-term goals. We found that the questionnaire had adequate psychometric proprieties among Francophone youth in Canada and in France.

Kyle J. Comishen and Scott A. Adler

The capacity to process and incorporate temporal information into behavioural decisions is an integral component for functioning in our environment. Whereas previous research has extended adults’ temporal processing capacity down the developmental timeline to infants, little research has examined infants’ capacity to use that temporal information in guiding their future behaviours and whether this capacity can detect event-timing differences on the order of milliseconds. The present study examined 3- and 6-month-old infants’ ability to process temporal durations of 700 and 1200 milliseconds by means of the Visual Expectation Cueing Paradigm in which the duration of a central stimulus predicted either a target appearing on the left or on the right of a screen. If 3- and 6-month-old infants could discriminate the milliseconds difference between the centrally-presented temporal cues, then they would correctly make anticipatory eye movements to the proper target location at a rate above chance. Results indicated that 6- but not 3-month-olds successfully discriminated and incorporated events’ temporal information into their visual expectations. Brain maturation and the perceptual capacity to discriminate the relative timing values of temporal events may account for these findings. This developmental limitation in processing and discriminating events on the scale of milliseconds, consequently, may be a limiting factor for attentional and cognitive development that has not previously been explored.

Jens Christoffer Skogen and Sverre Nesvåg

Sense of time is a fundamental aspect of human psychology. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) is a widely used questionnaire meant to measure fundamental experiential dimensions of time, such as past, present and future. The aim of this study was to establish model fit of a Norwegian extended version of the ZTPI. The study is based on a convenience sample of 713 individuals. Based on previous findings, we employed confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modelling to investigate different factor structures of ZTPI. The analyses were carried out using the WLSMV-estimation approach, and several fit indices was used as indicators of how well the data fitted the suggested factor structure. This first investigation of a Norwegian version of ZTPI did not find support for the original 56-item scale, the S-ZTPI version (64 items), nor an extended version that also incorporated the transcendental time perspective (74 items). In post-hoc analyses, we identified a model with 34 items and 7 factors that fitted the data adequately. Further studies should investigate the factor structure of ZTPI in a Norwegian context, and international studies should investigate how the transcendental time perspective relates to the rest of ZTPI.

Ari Widyanti and Dewi Regamalela

The sensitivity of mental workload measures is influenced by cultural and individual factors. One individual factor that is hypothesized to influence mental workload is time orientation. The aim of this study is to observe the influence of time orientation on temporal demand and subjective mental workload. One hundred and two participants representing three different time orientations, namely monochronic, neutral, and polychronic orientations, assessed using the Modified Polychronic Attitude Index 3 (MPAI3), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were instructed to complete a search and count task in four different conditions with varying degrees of difficulty. Mental workload was assessed using subjective (NASA-TLX) and objective (heart rate variability, or HRV) methods and analyzed for each condition. The results show that, with comparable performance and comparable HRV, monochronic participants show higher sensitivity than neutral or polychronic participants in subjective mental workload, particularly the temporal demand dimension. The implications are discussed.

Takumi Tanaka, Takuya Matsumoto, Shintaro Hayashi, Shiro Takagi and Hideaki Kawabata

Temporal binding refers to the subjective compression of the temporal interval between a voluntary action and its external sensory consequences. While empirical evidence and theoretical accounts have indicated the potential linkage between temporal binding and action outcome prediction mechanisms, several questions regarding the underlying processes and the fundamental nature of temporal binding remain unanswered. Based on the sophisticated classification of predictive processes proposed by Hughes et al. (2013), we conducted a systematic, quantitative review of the binding effect as measured with two representative procedures, i.e., Libet clock procedure and interval estimation procedure. Although both procedures were designed to measure the same phenomenon, we revealed a larger effect size and higher sensitivity to perceptual moderators in binding observed with the clock procedure than with the interval estimation. Moreover, in the former, we observed different characteristics for the two perceptual shifts that comprise temporal binding. Action shifts depended more on whether one can control outcome onsets with voluntary actions. In contrast, outcome shifts depended more on the degree to which participants could predict, rather than control, the action outcome onset. These results indicate that action shift occurs based on the activation of learned action–outcome associations by planning and executing actions, while outcome shift occurs based on comparing predicted and observed outcomes. By understanding the nature of each experimental procedure and each shift, future research can use optimal methods depending on the goal. We discuss, as an example, the implications for the underlying disorders of agency in schizophrenia.