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This article presents the all-but-lost Armenian inscription ostensibly recording an order from the last years of the Qaraquyunlu ‘Turkmen’ ruler qara Yūsuf (d. 1420 A.D.) at the church of the monastery of Arcowaber, now located in the center of the village of Salmanağa (Erciş, Van) in Turkey. A subsequent article discusses the date of the inscription together with its historical context and function. The present contribution establishes the layout and form of the text, including an extensive commentary of its terminology and content.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
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Abstract

Dargāhqolī Khān, also known as Moʿtaman-al-Dawla Moʿtaman-al-Molk Sālār-J̌ang and Khān-e Dawrān Navāb, was a high-ranking Iranian official at the court of the Neżāms of Hyderabad and Awrangābād for several generations, best known for his description of Delhi. He was descended from Khāndānqolī Khān Δolqadr, a member of the Bōrbōr sub-tribe who had joined the line of Torkman chiefs in the region of Mašhad and had migrated to India in 1048 A.H./1638 A.D. The paper presents a brief note on the biography of this prominent Indian politician of Iranian descent.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

The formation of new organizational activities with different approaches was one of the consequences of the events of September 1941 and after. The Women’s Democratic Organization (WDO) affiliated to the Tudeh Party (Ḥezb-e-tūde) was one of these new organizational activities. This study employs the historical-descriptive and content analysis approaches to investigate the historical aspects of WDO. The authors state that the opposition of traditional groups, the re-emergence of political repression, and the acceptance of the Tudeh Party ideology led to the failure of the WDO to achieve its goals.

In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

Despite the fact that Sogdian documents found in Dunhuang mainly concerned the Buddhist faith, they preserved important evidence about names and descriptions of deities rooted in the traditional religion of Sogdiana. This was a local form of Zoroastrianism called Xian in Chinese chronicles. Two 8th–9th cc. A.D. Buddhist texts in Sogdian from Dunhuang explicitly associated three Xian deities to Indian counterparts and even described their attributes. This paper discusses one deity not associated with any Sogdian god, namely Vreshman or Vaishramana, the Buddhist guardian (or lokapala) of the north. Sogdians probably identified him with Tish who usually appeared in pre-Islamic Sogdian art together with Nana.

In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

The article presents the publication of an unknown decree of Nādir Šāh issued in December 1742/January 1743 at the request of the Armenian merchants of Agulis. It examines the taxes levied from the merchants and the ways of tax extortion and excesses committed by Nādir Šāh’s administration in that period. The article contains a short review of the historical background of the document, the economic situation in the Nādir Šāh’s empire including Agulis.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
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Abstract

The present paper argues for the existence of an ablative-instrumental case in Kushan Bactrian with the endings -α (from original a-stems) and -να ~ -νο (from the Old Iranian pronominal declension). While the corpus is small and many details remain unknown or speculative, there are enough such case forms to show that the Kushan Bactrian case system is more archaic than often thought. It further becomes clear from the examples that the ablative-instrumental case had largely two functions: Several times it is used a prepositional case and, once, to mark the ergative agent of a transitive past tense verb. The existence of an ablative-instrumental in Bactrian as such, its endings and its functions have good parallels in other Middle and New Iranian languages spoken in the region, and should therefore not be too surprising for the Bactrian language of the 2nd century A.D.

In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

This paper discusses a Sasanian sealstone discovered in 2014 at the archaeological site of Yarim Tepe in Khorasan, northeastern Iran. Although a surface find, the fact that this sealstone is provenanced is significant because this sets it apart from thousands of unprovenanced Sasanian sealstones which, coming from the antiquities market, are held in museums and private collections around the globe. The seal shows a bust in profile and an inscription that arcs above the bust from shoulder to shoulder. Through a stylistic analysis, we date the seal to the 3rd–4th century CE. The article offers a new reading and interpretation of the inscription and argues that the image shows a conventional portrait rather than a specific individual.

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