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Abstract

In recent years, various studies have investigated the growth of the larval stage of the black soldier fly (BSF). Nevertheless, the biology and reproductive behaviors of the adult is still largely unknown. Expanding the understanding of this area of research will assist the optimization of breeding-systems of BSF. In this present study, the mating behavior of BSF adults under summer sunlight conditions was evaluated. The number of couplings were evaluated based on a variety of environmental parameters that may have affected the copula: temperature (°C), humidity (RH) and light intensity (lux). 1000 g of pupae were put inside a cage to obtain one hundred adults to put in each three experimental units. Each specimen was then marked with an individual code in the dorsal portion of the thorax using fine-tipped acrylic markers and for each fly the body length parameters were taken. Individuals of interest were subsequently marked; in the first experiment only females, in the second only male, and in the third both sexes. During the trials observations were carried out from 9.30 am to 5.30 pm. During this time the key behaviors evaluated are as follows: mating, mating failure, struggles, deposition, failure to lay eggs, and multiple mating. The rate recorded in the Male and Female trials was 16.5%, but the peak of copulas changed with the trials. Mating events demonstrated strong positive correlation between light intensity (0.73) and humidity (0.64), whereas a negative correlation was seen between temperature and matings (−0.59). A weakly negative correlation was seen between deposition number and light intensity (−0.34) and humidity (−0.41), while positively correlated with the temperature (0.47). Multiple mating events were seen 2 times for females and up to 4 times for male.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Insects are part of the natural diet of fish and poultry species and to a lesser extent of pigs, dogs and cats. In traditional farming, poultry gather their food in a free roaming manner, and insects are part of the diet. Similarly, a large fraction of the diet of freshwater fish consists of aquatic insects. These features are exploited by farmers all over the world, as feed costs are high. For example, farmers lure termites to baskets filled with organic matter, and the insects are then fed to chickens. They also employ light sources above fishponds to attract insects for their fish. More sophisticated methods are, for example, attracting naturally occurring houseflies to containers filled with organic waste, e.g. manure. The captured maggots or pupae are then fed to poultry. We discuss the following insect groups as feeds for poultry, pigs, fish, dogs and cats: bees, caterpillars, cockroaches, flies, grasshoppers and termites. Feed for poultry can also consist of insect pests, which are then controlled at the same time, for example ducks to control rice pests. Moreover, leftovers from the silk industry can be used to feed chickens, pigs and fish. Insects are also commonly used as bait for fishing. The interest in a more industrial production of insects such as the black soldier fly and housefly as animal feed started in the 1970s. In the last 15 years, large-scale rearing of insects for animal feed has taken off, with the industry receiving more than 1.5 billion dollars in investment. The market is expanding, the legislation is becoming more conducive, while academic interest is increasing exponentially. The environmental, nutritional and functional benefits of insects as feed are becoming more and more recognized. Insects are poised to play an increasingly prominent role in shaping the future of animal feed production.

Open Access
In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Childhood obesity is a crucial public health concern worldwide. Dietary intervention is the most common intervention for the treatment of obesity. Therefore, we tested an improved diet-based nutritional interventions to improve the childhood obesity and its gut microbiota. Thirty obese children received a 12-week intervention with the adjust-energy-restricted dietary pattern (A-CRD). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance (Inbody S10) and faecal microbes were profiled by sequencing 16S rRNA. Compared to the NTB group (at 0 week), the NTA group (at 12 weeks) had a significantly greater decrease in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF) ( P < 0.001 , respectively), whereas skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and fat free mass (FFM) were not statistically significantly different ( P > 0.05 ). The gut microbiota was found significantly different between the NTB and NTA groups based on alpha and beta diversity. Bifidobacterium, Blautia, and Streptococcus was significantly increased, whereas Bacteroides and Megamonas was significantly decreased in the NTA group ( P < 0.05 , respectively). Meanwhile, NTA group significantly increased the ability to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g. acetic acid/total dietary energy) and changed he predictive metabolic functional features of the microbiota communities ( P < 0.05 , respectively) than the NTB group. In conclusion, A-CRD can significantly improve childhood obesity, and the underlying mechanism may be its effect on gut microbiota and metabolism. Therefore, the diet-based nutrition intervention targeting gut microbiota will be more effective management of body weight and prevention of obesity.

Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR2300074571

Open Access
In: Beneficial Microbes
Authors: and

Abstract

The traveling food tourism with children industry has become a rapidly developing tourism market after the epidemic. Parents, children, and sightseeing factories have all benefited positively from their shared family travel experiences. Based on the value co-creation theory, this study analyzes literature related to traveling with children from a group perspective, selects variables and dimensions based on the characteristics of traveling with children in China, and investigate the relationships among motivation, involvement, experience value and visit intention in the context of the food tourism industry. Analysis of data from 578 respondents indicates that the proposed model fits the data well. The results indicate that the motivation of traveling with children does not have a direct positive impact on visit intention, but through tourism involvement and experience value, it can indirectly affect the visit intention of tourists with children. Empirical analysis is expected to contribute to the study on the experience theory of traveling with children. At the same time, targeted guidance and suggestions can be provided for product design, marketing strategy, and experience management in the food tourism industry.

Open Access
In: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review

Abstract

The use of insects as’ food and feed’ is rapidly increasing due to global population growth and rising food demands. Over the past few decades, this immediate popularity of edible insects has led to a substantial upsurge in research publications on edible insects. The present study aimed to bibliographically analyze the status of work done on edible insects throughout India and provide its comprehensive review. Articles published from 1945 to December 2023 were retrieved from Scopus and non-Scopus databases using web search engines like Google Scholar and PubMed using keywords such as ‘entomophagy,’ ‘food insects,’ and ‘edible insects.’ These were then analyzed based on publication category, leading authors and publishers, active states, and journals. Between 1945 and 2023, 219 articles on entomophagy in India were published by Indian authors. This analysis highlights the historical inclusion of insects in Indian diets, particularly among ethnic communities in the North-East Region (NER), and identifies key researchers advancing this field. The findings indicate that India has the potential to become a hub for insect supplement manufacturing. Current research shows a unidirectional focus, emphasizing the need for greater collaboration among Indian researchers to drive further progress. This study serves as a pioneering effort in performing a bibliographic analysis of publications on edible insects in India and assessing the progress this practice has made in terms of consumer acceptance and its future development as a promising food resource.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Fusarium grain mould, or FGM, is caused by Fusarium species that most frequently infect sorghum during the early stages of grain development. Several toxigenic Fusarium species have been shown to be involved in FGM, the most frequently isolated being Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium andiyazi, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium thapsinum, and Fusarium sacchari. The aim of the present study was to provide new insights on the occurrence of toxigenic fungi infecting sorghum cultivated in Hungary and the risk of contamination with mycotoxins. To reach this objective, the presence of toxigenic Fusarium isolates in sorghum samples was investigated; fungal species and capacity to produce mycotoxins were characterised for each isolated Fusarium strain. In a second step, the profile in tocochromanols and carotenoids of the two most widely cultivated sorghum varieties in Hungary was detailed and the effect of the predominant compounds on the biosynthesis of fumonisins and type B trichothecenes was investigated.

In: World Mycotoxin Journal

Abstract

Feed costs represent up to 60-70% of the total cost of poultry production, with protein sources being the most expensive feed component. Black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) shows promise as a sustainable protein source for use in animal diets. This research was conducted to determine the effects of including up to 13% defatted BSFLM and a supplementary protease-based enzyme (Concentrase-P; CBS Bio Platforms, Inc., Calgary AB, Canada) on laying hen performance and egg quality. To test this objective, 180 Lohmann Brown-Lite hens (52 weeks of age) were fed experimental diets containing 0%, 6.5%, or 13% BSFLM, with or without Concentrase-P (3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments). The treatments were fed over 20 weeks. Results indicated reduced feed intake and body weight in laying hens fed a 13% dietary inclusion level of BSFLM ( P < 0.05 ), while other performance traits (egg production and FCR) were similar among treatments ( P > 0.05 ) and met industry performance standards. Shell weight and egg breaking strength did not significantly change with the dietary inclusion level of BSFLM or enzyme inclusion ( P > 0.05 ), although a significant decrease in egg weight and albumen height was noted ( P < 0.05 ), as well as a significant decrease in albumen height for the Concentrase-P treatments ( P < 0.05 ). Yolk colours were significantly lighter and redder in birds fed diets containing high levels of BSFLM ( P < 0.05 ). Results support the use of BSFLM at dietary inclusion levels up to 13% in laying hen diets. Concentrase-P does not appear to be required in combination with BSFLM in terms of growth and laying performance, although potential benefits to other physiological factors are worth consideration.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

The effect of substituting Hermetia illucens (HI) meal for fish meal (FM) on the growth performance, survival rate, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, immunological function, and flesh quality of Clarias magur (average weight = 3.3 ± 0.05 g) is investigated in this work. Four iso-nitrogenous diets with 35% crude protein were formulated, each with varying levels of HI substitution: HI25%, HI50%, HI75%, and HI100%, then compared to a control diet (HI0%). Following a 90-day experiment, it was observed that the growth performance and feed efficiency were significantly improved at the 50% level ( P < 0.05 ). However, the control group exhibited greater levels of digestive enzymes, specifically protease and lipase activity. The fish’s health status remained unaffected by the substitution of fishmeal, while the 50% HI group showed significant improvements. The high levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, as well as the metabolic product MDA, suggested enhanced antioxidant activity in the groups that received HI inclusion. However, as the substitution level reached 100%, the quality of the flesh decreased, as indicated by increased lipid and adhesiveness, as well as decreased L* and WI ( P < 0.05 ). The findings of the study suggest that HI larvae can replace FM in diet of C. magur. Overall, at 50% level of HI larvae meal inclusion in diet, better growth and immune function was evident, but it does lead to a decrease in flesh quality. This study enhances the existing knowledge on substituting fish meal with insect meal in catfish that are of regional importance. Additionally, it emphasizes the necessity for additional investigation to examine the underlying mechanisms employing biotechnological approaches.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

The biological valorisation of edible insects is an eco-saving approach that may increase their use for food and feeding purposes. Beetles of T. molitor are a direct waste of insect farms since their protein have a low digestibility. Currently, the degree of hydrolysis achieved with biological treatments are much lower than with chemical treatments. This work focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of protein from T. molitor beetles using proteases. The obtained protein hydrolysate was evaluated regarding the digestibility and functional properties. Higher hydrolysis degree (HD; 47%) was obtained using a protease from Aspergillus oryzae, which efficiently separated protein from chitin. A full factorial design determined that a liquid:solid ratio (LSR) of 15 and an enzyme load of 3200 U/g increase HD up to 78%. The protein hydrolysate showed higher digestibility (77.3%) compared to beetles’ meal before (17.8%) and after defatting (25.7%). The protein hydrolysate showed a high antioxidant activity (462.1 ± 7.48 μmol TE/g DW), it was highly soluble at pH ranging between 3 and 9 and showed an emulsification activity and stability of 53.6% and 82.2%, respectively. Therefore, this bioprocess improved the use of beetles, obtaining protein with greater digestibility to be used as food.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Saddles are almost certainly one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment and are used by the majority of riders in many equestrian disciplines. Despite a large number of studies relating to saddle fit and function, there appear to be no published data describing the basic demographics of saddle use, rider preferences or discipline differences. This study was designed as an online survey consisting of 20 closed questions and 4 open free text questions split into three sections: (1) participant demographics; (2) saddle use; and (3) impact of saddle use on the horse and rider. The survey was live for 20 days and 65% of the responses were obtained within the first 8 days. A total of 4,527 horse owners/keepers undertook the survey with 3,624 complete responses (80.1% completion rate). The majority of respondents were female (98.1%, n = 3,555). The four most popular disciplines respondents participated in were pleasure riding/hacking (82.6%, n = 2,994), dressage (71.6%, n = 2,595), show jumping (48.2%, n = 1,747) and eventing (33.3%, n = 1,205). Most horse owners and keepers engaged in non-competitive or local/unaffiliated level competition (59.0%, n = 2,136). The majority of respondents (59.2%, n = 2,145) did not use saddles on more than one horse. When selecting a saddle, respondents valued comfort for the horse as essential (92.6%, n = 4,073), followed by injury prevention (essential; 66.5%, n = 2,838) and then performance related attributes (essential; 56.9%, n = 2,459). When selecting a saddle to buy, durability was the most important feature for respondents (92.5%), who also rated weight, price, and leather (63.0%, 66.5% and 67.7%, respectively) as key attributes they would require.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology