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Mosquitoes transmit many of the pathogens that cause zoonotic diseases from wildlife and livestock to people, with devasting consequences for public health. The factors affecting the ecology and evolution of the transmission dynamics of these mosquito-borne pathogens can be revealed using multidisciplinary research approaches. This 7th volume of the ECVD series focuses on the ecological factors that determine the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne pathogens naturally circulating between animals of different taxa and their importance for human health. The authors revise the current knowledge on the pathogens that affect wildlife, including those maintained in captivity, as well as the use of cutting-edge techniques for the identification of potential vectors of these pathogens. In addition, this volume explores the role of factors related to global change, including changes in landscape use, deforestation and urbanization, as major drivers of the distribution of mosquito vectors and the dynamics of pathogen transmission. Finally, updated information on the approaches used to identify and control mosquito-borne diseases is presented, with a particular focus on those affecting humans. In summary, this book provides an updated review of the different mosquito-borne pathogens affecting animals and their public health relevance.
Do you want to support dairy farmers in adjusting their management regarding the transition period of dairy cows? The book Pathways to health and disease for dairy cows provides veterinarians and farm advisors background information and practical tools. This unique book combines theoretical information with practical tools, and draws crosslinks between six aspects of transition cow biology. The book comprises two parts: an introduction chapter and six study chapters.
The first chapter outlines new ideas about the role of management in dairy farming:
- External conditions, comprising environment and farm management, continuously influence the internal body management of the cow.
- External conditions either support physiology or induce pathophysiology and pathology, for which new definitions are introduced.
- Advisory work on dairy farms must be based on the management of external conditions and not on herd performance data.
The six study chapters focus on the transition period and provide the reader with updated contemporary knowledge on (patho)physiology and pathology, and how they connect with risk factors, preventive measures, and monitoring tools.
Veterinarians and farm advisors must make a professional U-turn to support dairy farmers in solving and preventing disturbances in health and production. This book must be regarded as a start for resetting our traditional view and approach to cow health and disease.
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Abstract

Feeding poultry with live insect larvae stimulates natural behaviour and improves poultry welfare, when poultry has prolonged or frequent access to the larvae. But how to feed live insect larvae to poultry without labour-intensive hand feeding? This paper focusses on the development of a device that overcomes this challenge. A circular device was designed with eight storage compartments, which were filled once a day with live Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens). A motor controlled the timed rotation of the device multiple times per day, initiating the release of larvae when a compartment was pushed over an outlet. Every 60 minutes, a new compartment was pushed over the outlet, which means that after eight hours all compartments are emptied. To achieve a gradual release of larvae per storage compartment the device was timed to move every 30 minutes half a storage compartment forward. The larval release was recorded every 5 minutes within the 60 minutes. The device was tested at 18 °C, 24 °C and 30 °C, with 3.4 g and 129.8 g BSF larvae per compartment, and with three different outlet types of different size and shape. The larval release rate was influenced by temperature, amount of larvae, outlet type, and interactions between these factors. After placing a new compartment above the outlet, 50% of the larvae were on average released within 6 minutes. After 60 minutes, on average only 0.5% larvae remained in the compartment. Outlets with wider openings are preferred over the outlet with the narrowest outlet because less larvae remained in the compartments. The dispenser fulfilled the low-labour-intensity requirement as filling was only necessary once a day, the release of different amounts of larvae was achieved over several hours. This automatic dispenser provides a valuable tool to investigate the behaviour of poultry fed with live BSF larvae.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Gut microbiota may have therapeutic effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Regulating intestinal microbiota through Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a novel approach to treating IBD. This study aimed to explore the effect of L. plantarum and FMT pretreatment in alleviating colitis in mice. Five groups of mice (n = 6 per group) were included: CON group, DSS group (dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis mice), LP-DSS pretreatment group (colitis mice were given strain L. plantarum and 5% DSS), DSS-FMT group (mice pretreated with faecal microbiota transplantation were given 5% DSS), and LP-FMT pretreatment group (mice pretreated with faecal microbiota transplantation and L. plantarum were given 5% DSS). Serum metabolites and intestinal microbiota were analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results demonstrated that L. plantarum and FMT improved gut microbiota in mice by increasing Firmicutes and decreasing the Bacteroidetes. In the serum metabolomics analysis, there were 11 differential metabolites in the DSS-FMT and LP-FMT pretreatment groups, and these differential metabolites were mainly glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. It is worth noting that Lachnospira and Lactobacillus were positively associated with 8 differential metabolites. These results suggest that L. plantarum and FMT can regulate intestinal microorganisms and serum metabolomics to alleviate inflammation.

In: Beneficial Microbes

Abstract

The secondary metabolite 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is produced by certain fungi. The metabolite is a potent toxin which inhibits the citric acid cycle. A medical case from 2021 described a 69-year-old Danish man who ingested 3-nitropropionic acid contaminated coconut water. The man died 26 hours after ingestion. Subsequent analysis identified Apiospora saccharicola as the fungi responsible for synthesising 3-NPA in the coconut. The metabolic pathway for 3-NPA is unknown but is thought to be activated by adverse growth conditions. This study aimed to confirm that Apiospora can produce 3-NPA within coconuts and develop a quick and easy method for detection of 3-NPA in coconut water using 1H NMR. This method can possibly aid in detection of 3-NPA in contaminated groceries, such as coconut water.

In: World Mycotoxin Journal

Abstract

Nowadays, there is great pressure in cities on the demand and supply of food as well as environmental needs, and where Urban Agriculture emerges in various forms to confront this situation. Indeed, Urban Agriculture is a form of agriculture, highlighting its multiple functions in ensuring food security, maintaining urban ecosystem services, and improve the quality of life. Moreover, the use and transformation of abandoned areas is proving to be an appropriate way of creating new green spaces. This research article focuses on analysing the alignment between governance mechanisms, the distribution of the value created, together with the benefits derived. The comparison is based on four case studies in France, two in Paris (“La Caverne” and “Veni-Verdi”) and two in Rouen (“Le Champ des Possibles” and “Le Jardin de l’Astéroïde”) with different vocations (social vs economic), and which will serve as a basis for investigations into the theme of Food Governance Structures. This research work consisted of carrying out interviews with the stakeholders involved in Urban Agricultural Projects, as well as on-site visits for analysis and evaluation. An empirical analysis through the NVivo Software is used, which allowed the qualitative analysis of the data. The results show that there are similarities between the different initiatives, such as having a well-structured administrative office headed by a president, treasurer and employees. At the same time, there are a few differences in terms of the type of structure, key priorities and management structure. Indeed, three of the four initiatives evaluated aim to reach out to local residents and to understand the benefits of having agricultural spaces in our cities and to recreate this link with nature, unlike the economic initiative, which focuses more on business and commerce and less on social and educational inclusion.

Open Access
In: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review

Abstract

Mycotoxins are amongst the most prevalent food contaminants leading to serious health implications for humans and animals. Limiting exposure to them within the population remains a pressing food safety challenge. Prevention and timely detection are crucial for minimising mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. Therefore easy-to-use, rapid, eco-friendly and low-cost screening methods are increasingly implemented. Early-stage end-user engagement in the technological development process aids and guides the research towards increased societal impact. To investigate these end-user needs, the limitations of the currently used methods and the expectations towards a novel approach were mapped among stakeholders in a comprehensive survey. Stakeholders along the food supply chain (agricultural, food processing, retail, food safety and control, laboratories) were identified in five European countries and contacted. A total of 63 participants completed the survey, which was followed-up by an interview. The results of the survey revealed that different end-user groups have different priorities. Important limiting factors for agricultural, processing and retail stakeholders of the current methodologies include the complexity of sample preparation, high cost and time-to-results. Complementing the accredited laboratory tests with a pre-screening device would be especially interesting for agricultural producers (87.5% of the participants are interested) and food processors (80%), since there is an increasing demand for on-site detection of contamination. On the other hand, food control authorities and commercial laboratories indicated higher priority towards low quantification limits and multi-compound methods. The time to get the results was found to be more important than the testing cost (important aspect for 74.6 versus 66.7%). Overall, the findings of this study are critical input for end-user-targeted development of novel mycotoxin detection platforms.

Open Access
In: World Mycotoxin Journal

Abstract

We evaluated the benefits of heat-stable carotenoid-producing Bacillus marisflavi SH8 spores individually and in combination with non-pigmented Bacillus subtilis SH23 spores on growth, colour change, nutritional content, innate immunity, and gut microbiota of white-leg shrimp. White-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei; n = 30 per tank; 2 tanks per group) were provided feed without (control group) or with SH8, SH23, or mixed spores (total, 1 × 106 cfu/g pellet) for 28 d. The SH8 and SH8-23 combination groups had significantly higher specific growth rates (9.6 and 11.0%), improved red-colour score (4 scores), astaxanthin concentration (1.8- and 2.3-fold), lipid contents (30 and 50%), and superoxidase dismutase activity (8.5 and 12.3%) than that of the control group. Analysis of shrimp’s gut microbiome using 16S rRNA metagenome sequencing revealed increased abundance of four useful species and reduced abundance of four harmful species in the combination group than in the control group. Heat-stable Bacillus spore combination improved growth parameters, nutrient content, red-colour score, live counts, and abundance of useful bacteria in the gut of L. vannamei. This is the first study to show the benefits of combining highly heat-stable pigmented and non-pigmented Bacillus spores and their possible mechanisms in a shrimp model.

In: Beneficial Microbes

Abstract

Edible insects such as lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) are a promising new protein source for food and feed. The feed substrate on which these insects are reared may be contaminated with residues of insecticides originating from agricultural products that may impact insect performance. In this study, two generations of A. diaperinus were chronically exposed to spinosad (2.0 and 0.2 mg/kg) and imidacloprid (0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg) in the substrate. The aim was to determine sublethal effects on performance measures (total biomass (yield), mean individual weight, number of alive individuals) of larvae, pupae, and adult beetles, as well as pupation and eclosion. Exposure to spinosad at 2.0 mg/kg resulted in significant adverse effects on most performance measures of larvae, of both generations. Imidacloprid caused a reduction in yield and mean individual weight of the larvae as compared to the control at 0.1 mg/kg, while an increase in those measures was observed at 0.01 mg/kg. Significant adverse effects on adult beetles were only observed for imidacloprid at 0.1 mg/kg, and no significant effects of this insecticide on pupation and eclosion were observed. The concentrations of tested substances in larval samples were negligible for both generations, however, transfer from substrate to larval biomass was higher in the offspring generation relative to the parent generation. More research is needed to fully assess the hazard of insecticide residues to cause sublethal effects on A. diaperinus, for which method development for more cost-efficient designs is required.

Open Access
In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed