Chapter 2 engages the topic of communication. As writing is an intentional act, authors begin with the desire to say something in a way that is understandable to their readers. This suggests that communication occurs under specific conditions. First, authors and readers must use the same language. Authors employ the language of the intended audience, using an authorial audience to produce an implied author. Readers choose to employ the language of the intended audience, producing an ideal reader. Second, both must have competence in that language, meaning that the implied author and ideal reader mirror the intended audience. Third, both generally choose to use language in a standard way, without showing resistance or stepping beyond its conventions. Once readers recognize these conditions, they may enter the process in a way that maximizes communication and minimizes distortion. When these language conventions are misunderstood or misapplied, various types of disjunctions arise. This is especially important when authors violate conventions in creating newness, and readers grasp this newness by similarly crossing standard conventions.