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After analysing different scholarly approaches toward the “Eastern Question” the author offers his own definition, based on interdependence between the forced retreat of the Ottomans from the Balkans and the balance of power in Europe.

Taking into account that at the end of the 17th century the Ottoman empire lost vast territories in South-East Europe, it would be logical to ask, if that “forced retreat” of the Turks in the Balkans have influenced in some way the balance of power in Europe.

While the Habsburg monarchy celebrated the conquest of Belgrade in September 1688, the Sun King’s troops invaded Austria, which forced the Emperor to fight a war on two fronts. Since the territorial extension into South-Eastern Europe would add new “weights” on Austria’s position as a dominant power in the Centre of Europe, a military intervention, viewed from the “raison d’état” of Paris, was absolutely necessary. With other words: the “Eastern Question” was born in the year 1688.

In: The Treaties of Carlowitz (1699)
In: The Treaties of Carlowitz (1699)
The Siege of Szigetvár and the Death of Süleyman the Magnificent and Nicholas Zrínyi (1566)
Editor: Pál Fodor
In The Battle for Central Europe specialists in sixteenth-century Ottoman, Habsburg and Hungarian history provide the most comprehensive picture possible of a battle that determined the fate of Central Europe for centuries. Not only the siege and the death of its main protagonists are discussed, but also the wider context of the imperial rivalry and the empire buildings of the competing great powers of that age.

Contributors include Gábor Ágoston, János B. Szabó, Zsuzsa Barbarics-Hermanik, Günhan Börekçi, Feridun M. Emecen, Alfredo Alvar Ezquerra, István Fazekas, Pál Fodor, Klára Hegyi, Colin Imber, Damir Karbić, József Kelenik, Zoltán Korpás, Tijana Krstić, Nenad Moačanin, Gülru Neci̇poğlu, Erol Özvar, Géza Pálffy, Norbert Pap, Peter Rauscher, Claudia Römer, Arno Strohmeyer, Zeynep Tarım, James D. Tracy, Gábor Tüskés, Szabolcs Varga, Nicolas Vatin.
The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire is the first comprehensive overview of the empire’s relationship to its various European tributaries, Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania, Ragusa, the Crimean Khanate and the Cossack Hetmanate. The volume focuses on three fundamental aspects of the empire’s relationship with these polities: the various legal frameworks which determined their positions within the imperial system, the diplomatic contacts through which they sought to influence the imperial center, and the military cooperation between them and the Porte. Bringing together studies by eminent experts and presenting results of several less-known historiographical traditions, this volume contributes significantly to a deeper understanding of Ottoman power at the peripheries of the empire.
In: The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
In: The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
In: The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries