Recent studies have made a persuasive case that John Chrysostom should be considered a “medico-philosophical psychic therapist” in the classical tradition. Like the philosophers before him, he prescribed a regimen of spiritual exercises to bring the disordered passions under control. This chapter, however, will re-examine the extent of his dependence on the philosophical tradition, and in particular will argue that the scriptures and the Christian tradition exercise a more important influence on the fundamental nature of his diagnosis of spiritual sickness and its therapy. Whilst for the classical philosophers the ultimate goal of therapy was the achievement of happiness or wellbeing in the present, for Chrysostom it was to be found in avoiding God’s judgement for sin and receiving the blessings of eternal life. For him, the sick are those who are facing the judgement of God, and a key part of his therapy of the soul is to awaken in them a fear of hell that they may live more obedient lives and “receive the good things that are to come.” He was therefore in many ways more similar to the prophets of the Old Testament and the Christian preachers of the New: his preaching largely focussed on a message of repentance and obedience to a God who would be his congregation’s judge at the resurrection.