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Engraving and Etching, 1400-2000

A History of the Development of Manual Intaglio Printmaking Processes

Ad Stijnman

This book surveys the history of the techniques of engraving, etching and plate printing – i.e. that of manual intaglio printmaking processes – from its beginning in the 1430s until today. These developments are observed in the light of the coherence between the technique of the intaglio print (such as its materials and methods of production); the 'style' or outward appearance of the print; the creator of the print; and the fashion typical of a particular social group, place and time. Economic, educational and social aspects are discussed, as well as the worldwide dissemination of the trade of intaglio printmaking.
The author shows how intaglio printmaking developed steadily from the mid-fifteenth century, with the invention of the roller press and the etching of printing plates. By 1525 intaglio printmaking techniques could be said to have reached maturity and spread east and west following the European trade routes and colonisation. Further developments in plate-making resulted from a series of inventions and reinventions. After the abolition of the guilds on the European continent around 1800, and the introduction of photography and the expansion of the graphic industry, the engraving of images became a mere mechanical procedure. The handcrafted print made way for the large-scale mechanised graphic industry which emerged in the middle of the nineteenth century. Consequently artist-etchers withdrew to an elite position to concentrate on the manual aspects of printmaking, which is the situation today.
This comprehensively illustrated study is the first of its kind to cover all elements of the trade of engraving and etching throughout six centuries. Based on an exhaustive number of primary sources it will be an essential resource for collectors, curators, conservators, printmakers and students of technical art history.

The Case for Latvia. Disinformation Campaigns Against a Small Nation

Fourteen Hard Questions and Straight Answers about a Baltic Country


Jukka Rislakki

What do we know about Latvia and the Latvians? A Baltic (not Balkan) nation that emerged from fifty years under the Soviet Union – interrupted by a brief but brutal Nazi-German occupation and a devastating war – now a member of the European Union and NATO. Yes, but what else? Relentless accusations keep appearing, especially in Russian media, often repeated in the West: “Latvian soldiers single-handedly saved Lenin’s revolution in 1917”, “Latvians killed Tsar Nikolai II and the Royal family”, “Latvia was a thoroughly anti-Semitic country and Latvians started killing Jews even before the Germans arrived in 1941”, “Nazi revival is rampant in today's Latvia”, “The Russian minority is persecuted in Latvia. . .” True, false or in-between? The Finnish journalist and author Jukka Rislakki examines charges like these and provides an outline of Latvia's recent history while attempting to separate documented historical fact from misinformation and deliberate disinformation. His analysis helps to explain why the Baltic States (population 7 million) consistently top the enemy lists in public opinion polls of Russia (143 million). His knowledge of the Baltic languages allows him to make use of local sources and up-to-date historical research. He is a former Baltic States correspondent for Finland's largest daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat and the author of several books on Finnish and Latvian history. As a neutral, experienced and often critical observer, Rislakki is uniquely qualified for the task of separating truth from fiction.

Imperialism at Sea

Naval Strategic Thought, the Ideology of Sea Power, and the Tirpitz Plan, 1875-1914


Rolf Hobson

Was Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz' plan for naval expansion and the development of a "risk fleet" as a way to position Wilhelmine Germany as a world power to rival Britain so unique? This comparative study of the modern naval strategy of Germany, Britain, France, and the United States seeks to answer that question. First, Hobson is the only naval scholar to simultaneously compare the "Tirpitz Plan" with plans of the other leading nations of that time. Second, Hobson also interacts with how other scholars have assessed the complex interplay between naval history--both in and outside Germany--maritime law, and naval strategy. Hobson offers a unique interpretation of the causes and objectives of the German Imperial Navy at the end of the nineteenth century, forces that ultimately led to the First World War.

Schuld und Sühne? 1

Kriegserlebnis und Kriegsdeutung in deutschen Medien der Nachkriegszeit (1945-1961) Internationale Konferenz vom 01.-04.09.1999 in Berlin


Edited by Ursula Heukenkamp

Der Beginn des Zweiten Weltkrieges liegt mehr als 50 Jahre zurück. Bis heute haben aber die Fragen, mit denen dieses katastrophale Ereignis alle Deutschen konfrontiert, nicht an Bedeutung und Aktualität verloren. Vielmehr fordert das öffentliche Gedächtnis mit jedem Generationswechsel neue Bilder von diesem Krieg. Im Rückblick auf den Zeitraum seit 1945 läßt sich ein Zyklus von Erinnern, Verstummen und erneutem Erinnern ausmachen, der bereits dreifach durchlaufen worden ist. Insofern ist der Umgang mit dem Thema in den deutschen Medien gleich nach Kriegsende auch für die Gegenwart aufschlußreich. Deutungen und Formen des Gedenkens, die heute praktiziert werden, haben selber inzwischen eine Geschichte. Mehrfach glaubte man bereits in beiden Teilen Deutschlands, daß die Schuldfrage gelöst sei und die Kriegserfahrung bewältigt. Jedesmal stellte sich heraus, daß die Deutschen
noch immer in der Schuld sind, nicht nur aus der Perspektive ihrer europäischen Nachbarn. Die Beiträge in diesem Band gehen auf den Anfang eines unabgeschlossenen Prozesses zurück. Die Befragung gilt nicht den Menschen, sondern den Medien. Gefragt wird, wie in der Literatur, in der Presse, im Fernsehen und Film in den 40er und 50er Jahren mit dem Krieg umgegangen worden ist, welche Bilder davon die Literatur, die Presse, Fernsehen, Film und Hörspiel anzubieten hatten und welche Tendenzen sich dabei in den beiden deutschen Staaten, in Österreich, Polen und Frankreich nachweisen lassen. Eine Reflexion auf die neunziger Jahre macht das Thema spannend, denn dadurch wird den Bildern vom Krieg, die im wiedervereinigten Deutschland im Umlauf sind, ihr Ort im Zyklus zugewiesen: Ein Beitrag zur wieder nötig gewordenen Orientierung.

Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf

Architect of the Apocalypse


Lawrence Sondhaus

Did you ever wonder how and why Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852-1925) earned his reputation for brilliance, while failing so miserably during the First World War?
In examining Conrad’s life and career, including his years as a military writer, teacher of tactics, and a peacetime troop commander before 1906, this first modern biography offers a fascinating and impressive explanation of his thoughts and actions.
Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852-1925) served as Austro-Hungarian chief of the general staff between 1906 and 1917, and was a leading figure in the origins and conduct of the First World War. In no other country did a single general serve as the leading prewar tactician, prewar and wartime strategist, and wartime army commander. Because Conrad filled all of these roles in Austria-Hungary, he had no equal among the military men leading the old order of Europe to destruction in 1914-1918.

From Liberal Democracy to Fascism

Legal and Political Thought in the Weimar Republic


Peter Caldwell and William Scheuerman

The Weimar Republic – from 1919 until 1933, when Hitler came into power – witnessed crucial debates on law and politics. These debates are reexamined in this book. Were, for example, democratic rules and procedures an adequate basis for democracy, as Hugo Preuss and Hans Kelsen suggested? Or should constitutional law elaborate the deeper, basic principles embedded in the democratic constitution itself, as Hermann Heller argued? Was the president the immediate “guardian of the constitution”, as Carl Schmitt’s concept of “representation” suggested? Or was Schmitt’s concept itself subject to Walter Benjamin’s critique of the aura of authenticity?
These, and other typical Weimar-era debates helped shape West German constitutionalism. The former labor lawyer on the left Ernst Fraenkel, for example, began to develop a general theory of dictatorship mass democracy while in exile, which influenced the new discipline of political science after the war. Similarly, Gerhard Leibholz, an anti-positivist lawyer in Weimar, served on the first Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany, helping to consolidate its new constitutional culture.


Cultural Perspectives on Division and Unity in East and West


Edited by Clare Flanagan and Stuart Taberner

Poetry, Politics and Polemics

Cultural transfer between the Iberian peninsula and North Africa


Edited by Otto Zwartjes, Geert Jan van Gelder and Ed C.M. de Moor

It is an established historical fact that both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar formed a cultural unity in many different periods. After the military success of Mûs_ ib Nusayr, Islam broght unity to Arabs and many Berber tribes in the Maghrib, but the struggle for independence and the adoption of the eastern Khârijî doctrine always caused struggles. It is a well known fact that the contingent of Berbers among the Muslims of al-Andalus outnumbered considerably the inhabitants from Arab origin. After the decline and collapse of the Umayyads and Hammûdids in al-Andalus, various Berger dynasties seized their power and founded many different kingdoms (Taifas, from Arabic mulûk al-tawâ'if). Arab Andalusi culture flourished, which can be demonstrated by the fact that Arabic became the most important language of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule. On the other hand, large numbers of Andalusis emigrated to the Maghrib in many different periods. Already in the first centuries of Islamic spain, many Andalusis settled in North Africa. These Andalusis fled as a consequence of the drought, or were expelled for having collaborated against the regime or were forced to leave the Peninsula by the Christian Reconquista. Mutual migrations and political unity led to the exchange of many cultural phenomena between the two sides of the Straits. This fourth issue of Orientations focuses on some aspects of the ‘cultural transfer between al-Andalus and North Africa,' and particularly deals with some aspects of Poetry, Politics and Polemics from the eleventeenth to the seventeenth century.


This book, now available for the first time in an English translation, was published in Dutch in 1732 by lawyer Gerard van Loon. His aim was to give the reader a pleasant and informative tour of the history of coins and medals and the result is an astonishing, entertaining and surprisingly modern numismatic work. The format, layout and plates of this English translation follow closely those of the original edition. This translation opens up to modern readers of all kinds the fascinating thoughts and advice of a numismatist, historian and philosopher who lived and wrote more than a quarter of a millennium age.

The Revelations of Margery Kempe

Paramystical Practices in Late Medieval England