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Schuld und Sühne? 1

Kriegserlebnis und Kriegsdeutung in deutschen Medien der Nachkriegszeit (1945-1961) Internationale Konferenz vom 01.-04.09.1999 in Berlin

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Edited by Ursula Heukenkamp

Der Beginn des Zweiten Weltkrieges liegt mehr als 50 Jahre zurück. Bis heute haben aber die Fragen, mit denen dieses katastrophale Ereignis alle Deutschen konfrontiert, nicht an Bedeutung und Aktualität verloren. Vielmehr fordert das öffentliche Gedächtnis mit jedem Generationswechsel neue Bilder von diesem Krieg. Im Rückblick auf den Zeitraum seit 1945 läßt sich ein Zyklus von Erinnern, Verstummen und erneutem Erinnern ausmachen, der bereits dreifach durchlaufen worden ist. Insofern ist der Umgang mit dem Thema in den deutschen Medien gleich nach Kriegsende auch für die Gegenwart aufschlußreich. Deutungen und Formen des Gedenkens, die heute praktiziert werden, haben selber inzwischen eine Geschichte. Mehrfach glaubte man bereits in beiden Teilen Deutschlands, daß die Schuldfrage gelöst sei und die Kriegserfahrung bewältigt. Jedesmal stellte sich heraus, daß die Deutschen
noch immer in der Schuld sind, nicht nur aus der Perspektive ihrer europäischen Nachbarn. Die Beiträge in diesem Band gehen auf den Anfang eines unabgeschlossenen Prozesses zurück. Die Befragung gilt nicht den Menschen, sondern den Medien. Gefragt wird, wie in der Literatur, in der Presse, im Fernsehen und Film in den 40er und 50er Jahren mit dem Krieg umgegangen worden ist, welche Bilder davon die Literatur, die Presse, Fernsehen, Film und Hörspiel anzubieten hatten und welche Tendenzen sich dabei in den beiden deutschen Staaten, in Österreich, Polen und Frankreich nachweisen lassen. Eine Reflexion auf die neunziger Jahre macht das Thema spannend, denn dadurch wird den Bildern vom Krieg, die im wiedervereinigten Deutschland im Umlauf sind, ihr Ort im Zyklus zugewiesen: Ein Beitrag zur wieder nötig gewordenen Orientierung.

1949/1989

Cultural Perspectives on Division and Unity in East and West

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Edited by Clare Flanagan and Stuart Taberner

Fontomfrom

Contemporary Ghanaian Literature, Theatre and Film

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Edited by Kofi Anyidoho and James Gibbs

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Craig MacKenzie

This study deals with a particular kind of short story in South African English literature - a kind of story variously called the fireside tale, tall tale, skaz narrative or (the term used here) the 'oral-style' story. Most famously exemplified in the Oom Schalk Lourens narratives of Herman Charles Bosman, the oral-style story has its roots in the hunting tale and camp-fire yarn of the nineteenth century and has dozens of exponents in South African literature, most of them long forgotten. Here this neglect has been addressed.
A.W. Drayson's Tales at the Outspan (1862) provides a point of departure, and is followed by discussions of works by William Charles Scully, Percy FitzPatrick, Ernest Glanville, Perceval Gibbon, Francis Carey Slater, Pauline Smith, and Aegidius Jean Blignaut, all of whom used the oral-style story genre.
In the work of Herman Charles Bosman, however, the South African oral-style story comes into its own. In his Oom Schalk Lourens figure is invested all of the complexity and 'double-voicedness' that was latent - and largely dormant - in the earlier works. Bosman demonstrates his sophistication particularly in his metafictional use of the oral-style story.
The study concludes with a discussion of the use of oral forms in the work of more recent black writers - among them Bessie Head, Mtutuzeli Matshoba, and Njabulo Ndebele.

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Edited by Marcia Blumberg and Dennis Walder

One of the most striking features of cultural life in South Africa has been the extent to which one area of cultural practice - theatre - has more than any other testified to the present condition of the country, now in transition between its colonial past and a decolonized future. But in what sense and how far does the critical force of theatre in South Africa as a mode of intervention continue?
In the immediate post-election moment, theatre seemed to be pursuing an escapist, nostalgic route, relieved of its historical burden of protest and opposition. But, as the contributors to this volume show, new voices have been emerging, and a more complex politics of the theatre, involving feminist and gay initiatives, physical theatre, festival theatre and theatre-for-education, has become apparent.
Both new and familiar players in South African theatre studies from around the world here respond to or anticipate the altered conditions of the country, while exploring the notion that theatre continues to 'intervene.' This broad focus enables a wide and stimulating range of approaches: contributors examine strategies of intervention among audiences, theatres, established and fledgling writers, canonical and new texts, traditional and innovative critical perspectives. The book concludes with four recent interviews with influential practitioners about the meaning and future of theatre in South Africa: Athol Fugard, Fatima Dike, Reza de Wet, and Janet Suzman.

Unforeseeable Americas

Questioning Cultural Hybridity in the Americas

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Edited by Rita de Grandis and Zilà Bernd

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Edited by J. Peter Burgess

The present volume assembles essays from a broad cultural and professional spectrum around the question of European cultural identity. The heterogeneity of the contributors — their differing points of departure and methods — attests to a tension in intellectual communities which today is more intense than ever. Europe’s identity crisis is not merely an empirical matter. It reflects a far deeper, and far older, discursive crisis. The mandate of Europe’s traditional intellectual institutions to preserve and police their own cultural heritage has proved incapable of evolving in a manner sufficient to account for the mutation in its object: European culture. It is not merely that Europe’s identity, like any identity in the flux of history, has changed. Rather, the notion of identity, the very basis of any questions of who we are, where we are going, and the appropriate political forms and social institutions for further existence, all rely on a logic of identity which has, at best, become extremely problematic. It is this problematization which provides the common thread unifying the following essays. Each contributor, in his/her own way and with respect to his/her own research object, confronts the adequacy of the concept of cultural identity. The hidden presuppositions of this concept are indeed remarkable, and the logic of cultural identity prescribes that they remain undisclosed.

Poetry, Politics and Polemics

Cultural transfer between the Iberian peninsula and North Africa

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Edited by Otto Zwartjes, Geert Jan van Gelder and Ed C.M. de Moor

It is an established historical fact that both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar formed a cultural unity in many different periods. After the military success of Mûs_ ib Nusayr, Islam broght unity to Arabs and many Berber tribes in the Maghrib, but the struggle for independence and the adoption of the eastern Khârijî doctrine always caused struggles. It is a well known fact that the contingent of Berbers among the Muslims of al-Andalus outnumbered considerably the inhabitants from Arab origin. After the decline and collapse of the Umayyads and Hammûdids in al-Andalus, various Berger dynasties seized their power and founded many different kingdoms (Taifas, from Arabic mulûk al-tawâ'if). Arab Andalusi culture flourished, which can be demonstrated by the fact that Arabic became the most important language of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule. On the other hand, large numbers of Andalusis emigrated to the Maghrib in many different periods. Already in the first centuries of Islamic spain, many Andalusis settled in North Africa. These Andalusis fled as a consequence of the drought, or were expelled for having collaborated against the regime or were forced to leave the Peninsula by the Christian Reconquista. Mutual migrations and political unity led to the exchange of many cultural phenomena between the two sides of the Straits. This fourth issue of Orientations focuses on some aspects of the ‘cultural transfer between al-Andalus and North Africa,' and particularly deals with some aspects of Poetry, Politics and Polemics from the eleventeenth to the seventeenth century.

Images of the Nation

Different Meanings of Dutchness, 1870-1940

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Edited by A. Galema, B. Henkes and H. te Velde

This collection of case studies investigates the significance and function of national identity. The authors see national consciousness in terms of the circumstances in which it arose, and in terms of the meaning which it had for a specific group or individual. Representations of the nation could serve to legitimize or support specific political or social agendas, or to provide people with a point of fixity amidst changing circumstances. The articles in this volume trace these aspects of national consciousness in the case of a single country: The Netherlands.