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Drawn after Nature

The Complete Botanical Watercolours of the 16th-Century Libri Picturati

Jan Koning, Gerda va Uffelen, Alicja Zemanek and Bogdan Zemanek

Drawn after nature presents a vivid and complete picture of a unique historical collection of botanical watercolours. Botanists, art lovers, historians as well as the general public will enjoy this publication of the watercolours, their annotations and their history, but above all their supreme beauty and display of craftsmanship.
For over 300 years, the Preußische Staatsbibliothek in Berlin held a most remarkable collection of botanical watercolours. They were catalogued as part of the library’s illustrated manuscripts, or Libri Picturati. These magnificent works of art, rich in colour and detail, were made in the second half of the 16th century in the southern part of the Low Countries.
In the 1970s the complete set of watercolours had been rediscovered and sparked the interest of historians, art historians and botanists alike. Together they set out to unravel the many secrets still held by the Libri Picturati’s watercolours: who had collected them, and why?
A team of pre-eminent European scientists worked together on these and other intriguing questions surrounding the collection. They unveiled the important role played by the famous Dutch botanist Carolus Clusius, who later founded the University of Leiden’s Botanical Gardens.
Drawn after nature contains accessible and informative chapters on the collection’s history, but most importantly: it brings together all of the original 1429 watercolours and sketches, for the first time in one volume, accompanied by their original annotations.

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Edited by Karl A. E.. Enenkel and Mark S. Smith

The new definition of the animal is one of the fascinating features of the intellectual life of the early modern period. The sixteenth century saw the invention of the new science of zoology. This went hand in hand with the (re)discovery of anatomy, physiology and – in the seventeenth century – the invention of the microscope. The discovery of the new world confronted intellectuals with hitherto unknown species, which found their way into courtly menageries, curiosity cabinets and academic collections. Artistic progress in painting and drawing brought about a new precision of animal illustrations. In this volume, specialists from various disciplines (Neo-Latin, French, German, Dutch, History, history of science, art history) explore the fascinating early modern discourses on animals in science, literature and the visual arts. The volume is of interest for all students of the history of science and intellectual life, of literature and art history of the early modern period.

Contributors include Rebecca Parker Brienen, Paulette Choné, Sarah Cohen, Pia Cuneo, Louise Hill Curth, Florike Egmond, Karl A.E. Enenkel, Susanne Hehenberger, Annemarie Jordan-Gschwendt, Erik Jorink, Johan Koppenol, Almudena Perez de Tudela, Vibeke Roggen, Franziska Schnoor, Paul J. Smith, Thea Vignau-Wilberg, and Suzanne J. Walker.

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Edited by Vera Kalitzkus and Peter L. Twohig

Biomedicine is the dominant organizing framework of modern medicine but it is not the only lens through which health, illness and disease can be understood. This interdisciplinary collection of essays brings together scholars from around the world who seek to probe the boundaries of biomedicine. This book is the outcome of the third global conference on Making Sense of: Health, Illness and Disease, held at St Catherine's College, Oxford, in July 2004. The papers selected for this volume take a variety of theoretical positions but share an interest in the social study of health, illness and disease. They consider how biomedicine is a cultural system and is imbued with other meanings and that a full exploration of health, illness and disease requires a variety of perspectives, including those of social scientists, humanists and practicing clinicians.
This volume will be of interest to students, researchers and health care providers who wish to gain insight into the many ways through which we can understand health, illness and disease.

It has been brought to our attention that in a chapter in this volume
“The Communication of Diagnostic Information by Doctors to Patients in the Consultation” By Peter J. Schulz
direct reference and citation of the works of other scholars is often inconsistent and in some cases totally lacking. While we do not believe that it was the intention of the author of the article to misappropriate other persons’ material, we do admit that the chapter does not meet standards currently expected of an academic publication. We regret any misappropriation of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions in our publications and will remain vigilant to prevent this recurring in the future. We give notice that the chapter has been retracted and will not appear in any future editions of the book.

Brill, January 2016

Sex and Seclusion, Class and Custody

Perspectives on Gender and Class in the History of British and Irish Psychiatry

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Edited by Anne Digby

This innovative collection of essays employs historical and sociological approaches to provide important case studies of asylums, psychiatry and mental illness in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Leading scholars in the field working on a variety of geographical, temporal, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts, show how class and gender have historically affected and conditioned the thinking, language, and processes according to which society identified and responded to the mentally ill. Contributors to this volume focus on both class and gender and thus are able to explore their interaction, whereas previous publications addressed class or gender incidentally, partially, or in isolation. By adopting this dual focus as its unifying theme, the volume is able to supply new insights into such interesting topics as patient careers, the relationship between lay and professional knowledge of insanity, the boundaries of professional power, and the creation of psychiatric knowledge. Particularly useful to student readers (and to those new to this academic field) is a substantive and accessible introduction to existing scholarship in the field, which signposts the ways in which this collection challenges, adjusts and extends previous perspectives.

An Annotated Census of Copernicus' De revolutionibus

(Nuremberg, 1543 and Basel, 1566)

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Owen Gingerich

The Annotated Census lists and describes - on the basis of direct examination - all of the 560 located copies of the first and second editions of Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium that survive in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia, as well as several copies of known provenance destroyed, stolen or otherwise lost in modern times. The entry for each copy lists its present location and describes particulars of its binding, size, and any shelf marks. A short history is given of the provenance of each copy, wherever possible with identification of owners and dates of ownership. Marginalia and interlinear notes are also indicated together with transcription and translation of the more important ones. The content of the more significant notes is discussed (with reference to the modern literature), analyses that sometimes develop into substantial essays. Numerous plates show examples of the handwriting of the major annotators. Appendices list the other works bound with De revolutionibus, and prices at auction going back to the 18th century.
The density and quality of the data provided about the copies make this a fascinating reference work not only for scholars interested in the history of astronomy but especially for all those interested in printing in the early modern period. The census will also provide an almost inexhaustible mine of information concerning the spread of ideas, scholarly networks, book collecting, and library development from the 17th to 20th centuries.

The Mechanization of Aristotelianism

The Late Aristotelian Setting of Thomas Hobbes’ Natural Philosophy

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Cees Leijenhorst

This book discusses the Aristotelian setting of Thomas Hobbes' main work on natural philosophy, De Corpore (1655). Leijenhorst's study puts particular emphasis on the second part of the work, entitled Philosophia Prima. Although Hobbes presents his mechanistic philosophy of nature as an outright replacement of Aristotelian physics, he continued to use the vocabulary and arguments of sixteenth and seventeenth-century Aristotelianism. Leijenhorst shows that while in some cases this common vocabulary hides profound conceptual innovations, in other cases Hobbes' self-proclaimed "new" philosophy is simply old wine in new sacks. Leijenhorst's book substantially enriches our insight in the complexity of the rise of modern philosophy and the way it struggled with the Aristotelian heritage.

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Lennart Nordenfelt

This book is a contribution to the current philosophical discussion on the nature of health and illness. It contains a comparative analysis and reevaluation of four influential contemporary theories in this field. These are the biostatistical theory of Christopher Boorse which represents the mainstream thinking in medicine, and three versions of a holistic and normative understanding of health and illness which are the theories of Lawrie Reznek, K. W. M. Fulford, and Lennart Nordenfelt. In this unusual volume of assessment, Nordenfelt critically reexamines his own theory, and George Khushf and K. W. M. Fulford contribute critical responses.

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Edited by Lawrence I. Conrad and Anne Hardy

Modernising scientific medicine emerged in the nineteenth century as an increasingly powerful agent of change in a context of complex social developments. Women's lives and expectations in particular underwent a transformation in the years after 1870 as education, employment opportunities and political involvement extended their personal and gender horizons. For women, medicine came to offer not just treatment in the event of illness but the possibilities of participation in medical practise, of shaping social policies and political understandings, and of altering the biological imperatives of their bodies. The essays in this collection explore various ways in which women responded to these challenges and opportunities and sought to use the power of modernising Western medicine to further their individual and gender interests.

Dangerous Liaisons

A Social History of Venereal Disease in Twentieth-Century Scotland

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Roger Davidson

This book explores the role of Venereal Disease in shaping perceptions of sexuality in twentieth-century Scotland, and in defining the response of the Modern State to patterns of sexual behaviour. It examines how civic, medical and political authorities reacted to the ‘Hideous Scourge' in times of peace and war and how far policy was informed by anxieties surrounding social change and public morality as much as by the incidence of disease and developments in medical knowledge. It focuses in particular on the moral assumptions underpinning epidemiological debate, and the various dimensions of stigmatisation and control within VD discourse, including gender, generation and class. This study also highlights the protracted campaign in Scotland for legal controls over those suffering from VD, and the enduring problem, resurrected by the threat of HIV and AIDS, of balancing the demands of public health against those of civil liberties in the regulation of ‘dangerous sexualities'.

Malthus, Medicine, & Morality

‘Malthusianism’ after 1798

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Edited by Brain Dolan

Thomas Robert Malthus's reputation has lately been rehabilitated in the fields of social biology, demography, environmentalism, and economics. In the midst of this current interest and with the chance to mark the occasion of the bicentenary of the first edition of the Essay on Population (1798), the contributors to this volume take this timely opportunity to examine the historical conditions in which Malthus constructed his theory, and in which the concept of a ‘Malthusian' and ‘Neo-Malthusian' philosophy first emerged. The essays redress the balance between Malthus's original argument, the immediate responses to Malthus by medics and theologians in Britain and on the Continent, and some of the ways that his ideas were later attacked, appropriated, or misrepresented. Included here are essays that not only re-evaluate the development of Malthus's theory, but also offer critical perspectives on the generation of the ‘Malthusian league' and debates about birth control in Britain and on the Continent, and Malthus's influence on the emergence of social science and Darwinian evolutionary biology.