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Economy and Ecology of Heathlands

Heathland Ecology and Management

Edited by W. Herbert Diemont, Wim J.M. Heijman, Henk Siepel and Nigel R. Webb

Heathlands in Europe reflect a long history of human activity and use. Through the ages heathlands have been of importance as (semi)agricultural areas, hunting territories and various other uses of mankind. This diversity of use has created a cultural diversity over the whole Atlantic area of Europe, from Portugal and Spain in the south to Norway in the north and from Germany in the east to Ireland in the west.

Economy and Ecology of Heathlands shows us both the diversity in use all over Europe and combines this information with the newest insights in ecology and the Natura 2000 status most of these heathlands have got nowadays.

Central theme is how to cover the costs of maintenance of these heathlands. Is their future in new types of commons, or do other types of land ownership, using the revenues of heathland ecosystem services, give better opportunities?

The editors combine a broad variance in knowledge of heathlands varying from all aspects of ecology, land use, as well as economy.

Living on the Edge

Wetlands and Birds in a Changing Sahel

Le Zwarts, Rob G. Bijlsma, Jan van der Kamp and Eddy Wymenga

'Living on the Edge' examines the function of the Sahel region of Africa as an important wintering area for long-distance migrant birds. It describes the challenges the birds have to cope with – climate change, of course, and rapid man-made habitat changes related to deforestation, irrigation and reclamation of wetlands.

How have all these changes affected the birds, and have birds adapted to these changes? Can we explain the changing numbers of breeding birds in Europe by changes in the Sahel, or vice versa?

Winner of the BB/BTO Best Bird Book Award 2010
The Jury commented: "It is a tremendous book in every department. It marks a step-change in our knowledge of the ecology of this critically important region in the European-African migration system and of the many species (familiar to us on their breeding grounds) that winter there.

The authors combine the latest scientific information with vivid descriptions of landscapes and animals. Their book is richly illustrated with large numbers of drawings, maps and photographs by acclaimed experts.

The wealth of coloured graphics has been particularly well thought out and encourages readers to delve into the figures and learn more about the region, rather than having the (all-too-common) opposite effect.

Summing up, the jury praises not just the high quality of the texts, the information and the illustrations, but also the sheer pleasure of reading the book: "One of the key attributes of a good book is to be able to grip the reader's attention and transport him or her to another place. We feel confident that [Living on the edge] will have that effect."

Grasslands in Europe

Of High Nature Value

Peter Veen, Richard Jefferson, Jacques de Smidt and Jan van der Straaten

Grasslands are an important element of European nature. About half of Europe's endemic species depend on grasslands, whether in mountains, lowlands, river plains or coastal areas. Many grasslands originate in traditional agricultural landscapes. Modern intensification, however, brings many of these ecosystems under threat.
'Grasslands in Europe' is a tribute to these important ecosystems. It was written by an international team of grassland experts, who describe twenty-four case studies from countries in all of Europe - ranging from the grasslands of Gotland and #land (Sweden) to the Spanish Dehesa, and from the hay meadows of the British Pennine Dales to the steppes of Turkish Anatolia.
Together, these case studies provide a fascinating glimpse into the various European grasslands, their value for nature, culture and agriculture, and the threats they are facing today. The accessible text as well as the rich illustrations will appeal to a wide audience. Grasslands in Europe contains a large number of stunning full-colour photographs of grassland landscapes, species and cultural history. It also contains many maps and infographics.
Thematic chapters provide essential background information on topics such as grassland fauna, the history of agriculture, grassland communities, and the connection between grasslands and climate. The book also analyses the opportunities and risks of EU policy to conserve these grasslands. It offers a farmer-centred outlook to manage and to maintain the European grasslands of high nature value.

Fred Punzo

This book covers many aspects of the biology of spiders including morphology, physiology, neurobiology, ecology, evolution, classification, natural history, and behavior. The physiology of all major systems are covered (integument, digestion, excretion and osmoregulation, neurophysiology, respiration and metabolism, circulation and hemolymph), as well as the biochemistry of spider silk and venom. Behavioral topics include, but are not limited to, foraging, dispersal, antipredator tactics, nest and web construction, communication, and social interactions. Topics on physiological ecology, habitat selection, diet composition, and community ecology are also addressed.
Additional ttopics include spider systematics and evolution, as well as the role of spiders in mythology and literature.

This publication has also been published in paperback, please click here for details.

Fred Punzo

This book covers many aspects of the biology of spiders including morphology, physiology, neurobiology, ecology, evolution, classification, natural history, and behavior. The physiology of all major systems are covered (integument, digestion, excretion and osmoregulation, neurophysiology, respiration and metabolism, circulation and hemolymph), as well as the biochemistry of spider silk and venom. Behavioral topics include, but are not limited to, foraging, dispersal, antipredator tactics, nest and web construction, communication, and social interactions. Topics on physiological ecology, habitat selection, diet composition, and community ecology are also addressed.
Additional ttopics include spider systematics and evolution, as well as the role of spiders in mythology and literature.

This publication has also been published in hardback, please click here for details.

Europe's Living Landscapes

Essays Exploring Our Identity in the Countryside

Edited by Bas Pedroli, Anne van Doorn and Geert de Blust

This book is the result of three symposia of the Dutch Society for Landscape Ecology. The first symposium in 2005 was about the National Ecological Network in the Netherlands . The reason was that the implementation of the NEN, decided upon in 1990, was halfway. The second symposium, in 2006, was about urban ecology and the third one, to be held in 2007, will be about civil infrastructure. This book does not cover the conferences completely and new contributions are added.

The three themes are important contexts in which landscape ecologists do their research and apply their knowledge and skills. Of course, there are many more subjects to hold conferences about, for example climate change, urbanisation, agriculture, landscape ecology itself etc.
The focus of the conferences is on the Netherlands, with its urbanisation, intensive land use and water management as characteristic features. Although many WLO members do their work abroad or in an international context, these conferences offer a window on what happens in the Dutch context. The experiences may be of value for other contexts and that is why we present the results in English.

The selected themes and the focus on the Dutch context are serious demarcations of what landscape ecology in the Netherlands is all about. The book does not represent all research and applications of landscape ecology.

Evolution, Function, Development and Causation

Tinbergen's Four Questions and Contemporary Behavioural Biology

Edited by Johan Bolhuis and Simon Verhulst

Ethologist and Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen laid the foundations for the scientific study of animal behaviour when he formulated its four main problems: evolution, function, development and causation. Celebrating the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Tinbergen’s classic article ‘On aims and methods of ethology’, in this book an international cast of leading behavioural biologists reflect on the enduring significance of his groundbreaking proposals. Following a reprint of Tinbergen’s seminal paper on the famous ‘four why’s’, a contemporary perspective is presented on each of the four problems. In addition, two essays discuss the wider significance of recent trends in evolutionary psychology and neuroecology to integrate the four why’s. This wide ranging book, with a foreword by Aubrey Manning, will appeal to students and researchers in behavioural biology, experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

Edited by Eileen Claussen

It is the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st Century. But what do we truly know about global climate change? And what can we do about it? Most of the world’s top scientists agree that emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from human activities such as industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion, and land-use changes are causing the earth to get warmer. Impacts of this warming may include damage to our coastal areas, accelerated rates of species loss, altered agricultural patterns, and increased incidences of infectious diseases. The effects of climate change — and efforts to mitigate climate change — could also have substantial economic ramifications.

The book presents the latest research and analysis from prominent scientists, economists, academics, and policy-makers, including:
Tom Wigley and Joel Smith, who, along with other authors of the Science and Impacts chapter, explain the basic science of climate change, the growing evidence that human activities are changing our climate, and the impacts of these changes; Eileen Claussen, John Gummer, Henry Lee, and other authors of the Global Strategies chapter, who describe what nations are or are not doing to address climate change, and the state of international climate talks;
Robert Stavins, John Weyant, Ev Ehrlich, and other economists, who explain why economic analyses of climate policy are conducted, why the projected costs of addressing climate change vary so widely among economic models, and how changes driven by today’s economy can influence climate policy; Gov. Jean Shaheen and other authors of the Innovative Solutions chapter, who describe what state and local governments in the United States and multinational companies are doing to monitor and curb greenhouse gas emissions; and
Forest Reinhardt, who offers business leaders advice on steering their companies on a path that is healthy for business as well as the global climate.

This publication has also been published in paperback, please click here for details.

Edited by Eileen Claussen

It is the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st Century. But what do we truly know about global climate change? And what can we do about it?
Most of the world’s top scientists agree that emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from human activities such as industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion, and land-use changes are causing the earth to get warmer. Impacts of this warming may include damage to our coastal areas, accelerated rates of species loss, altered agricultural patterns, and increased incidences of infectious diseases. The effects of climate change — and efforts to mitigate climate change — could also have substantial economic ramifications.
The book presents the latest research and analysis from prominent scientists, economists, academics, and policy-makers, including:
Tom Wigley and Joel Smith, who, along with other authors of the Science and Impacts chapter, explain the basic science of climate change, the growing evidence that human activities are changing our climate, and the impacts of these changes;
Eileen Claussen, John Gummer, Henry Lee, and other authors of the Global Strategies chapter, who describe what nations are or are not doing to address climate change, and the state of international climate talks;
Robert Stavins, John Weyant, Ev Ehrlich, and other economists, who explain why economic analyses of climate policy are conducted, why the projected costs of addressing climate change vary so widely among economic models, and how changes driven by today’s economy can influence climate policy;
Gov. Jean Shaheen and other authors of the Innovative Solutions chapter, who describe what state and local governments in the United States and multinational companies are doing to monitor and curb greenhouse gas emissions; and
Forest Reinhardt, who offers business leaders advice on steering their companies on a path that is healthy for business as well as the global climate.

This publication has also been published in hardback, please
click here for details.

Forest Fragmentation

Wildlife and Management Implications

Edited by James Rochelle, Leslie Lehmann and Joe Wisniewski

For years, scientists have considered habitat fragmentation to be one of the greatest threats to wildlife survival worldwide. This book summarizes findings from the first scientific conference to address fragmentation in relationship to forest management and the consequences for wildlife populations in the forests of the western United States and Canada. It defines fragmentation as the process of reducing size and connectivity of stands composing a forest. It differentiates habitat fragmentation (or configuration) from habitat loss, such as that which results from converting forest land to agricultural and urban uses.
The book discusses fragmentation in light of the theory of 'island biogeography' which considers patches of habitat as islands, separated from each other by a sea of hostile land. Patterns of natural and human-caused disturbance and their effects including habitat loss, changes in habitat configuration and connectivity, and creation of edge are addressed in light of their influences on forest-dwelling vertebrates. The effects of habitat loss, changes in habitat configuration on predation, wildlife dispersal and genetics are discussed. The findings indicate that negative effects of fragmentation on wildlife associated with forest land use changes in Midwestern and eastern parts of North America are not apparent in western forests managed for timber production, where older and younger forests are juxtaposed on the landscape.
The book provides little evidence of negative effects on vertebrate biodiversity from changes in the configuration of forest habitat. The findings indicate that total amount of habitat is of greater significance to vertebrate survival and productivity than how it is configured, and suggest that prevention of habitat loss should be the higher conservation priority. The information should help resource managers, planners and scientists understand and address landscape-level concerns related to forestry and wildlife.