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Forgotten Diplomacy

The Modern Remaking of Dutch-Chinese Relations, 1927–1950

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Vincent K.L. Chang

In this meticulously researched volume, Vincent Chang resurrects a near forgotten yet pivotal chapter of Dutch-Chinese ties to narrate how World War II, China’s civil war, and Indonesia’s decolonization reshaped and ultimately redefined this age-old bilateral relationship.
Drawing on a wealth of hitherto-unexplored archives, this book explains how China’s rise on the global stage and the Netherlands’ simultaneous decline as a Pacific power informed events in Dutch-controlled Indonesia (and vice versa) and prompted a complete recalibration of bilateral ties, culminating in the Netherlands’ recognition of the People’s Republic and laying the foundations for its current “One-China” policy.
Presenting insightful analyses of power dynamics and law, this book is a critical resource to historians and China specialists as well as scholars of international relations and international law.

Public Diplomacy at Home

Domestic Dimensions

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Ellen Huijgh

This book is about the domestic dimension of public diplomacy, which must be understood within the context of public diplomacy’s evolution over time. In the virtually connected world of today, newcomers such as supranational organizations, sub-states and Asian countries have had less difficulty than Western nation-states including a domestic dimension in public diplomacy. Doing so does not separate the domestic and international components; rather, it highlights that there is a holistic/integrative approach to public involvement at home and abroad. In Huijgh’s comprehensive analysis, including case studies from North America, Europa and the Asia-Pacific, public diplomacy’s international and domestic dimensions can be seen as stepping stones on a continuum of public participation that is central to international policymaking and conduct.

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

In White Women, Aboriginal Missions and Australian Settler Governments, Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw provide the first detailed study of the central part that white women played in missions to Aboriginal people in Australia. As Aboriginal people experienced violent dispossession through settler invasion, white mission women were positioned as ‘mothers’ who could protect, nurture and ‘civilise’ Aboriginal people. In this position, missionary women found themselves continuously navigating the often-contradictory demands of their own intentions, of Aboriginal expectations and of settler government policies. Through detailed studies that draw on rich archival sources, this book provides a new perspective on the history of missions in Australia and also offers new frameworks for understanding the exercise of power by missionary women in colonial contexts.

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

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Chapter five examines the role of faith missionaries in southeastern Australia in the period after World War I. At this time, Aboriginal people began to organize into new political organisations to advocate for greater political and civil rights. We examine the responses of the faith missions to this development, as well as the way some white women associated with faith missions in the southeastern states of New South Wales and Victoria became involved in Aboriginal efforts to resist or challenge the policies and practices enacted under the discourse of protection. We also examine broader elements of the relationship between Aboriginal activism and Aboriginal involvement in the faith missions.

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

Abstract

Our first chapter describes how attitudes to missionary women developed in early colonial contexts in Australia, prior to the development of comprehensive policies or legislation regarding Aboriginal people. We examine four institutions that arose out of collaborations between the colonial state and humanitarians who sought to ‘civilise and Christianise’ Aboriginal adults and children in the early years of the colonies of New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia. We consider the establishment and failure of the Parramatta Native Institution on Dharug country in New South Wales (1814-1828); the Port Phillip Protectorate on Kulin country in what later became the colony of Victoria (1839-1848); the work of the Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Society on Kaurna country in South Australia (1838-1845); and the Albany Native Institution on Noongar country in Western Australia (1852-1870). White women, it emerged, would be essential to the conduct of missions as personal supporters of white men’s endeavours, as appropriate mentors and teachers of Indigenous women and children, and as agents in the implementation of government-initiated policies surrounding Aboriginal peoples.

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

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In chapter two we consider white women’s role in humanitarian and missionary ventures in colonial Victoria, within the system of residential missions that developed under emerging policies of protection. Through a close study of the relationships of white and Aboriginal women at Ramahyuck Presbyterian Mission, in the east of the colony, we illustrate the ways in which the particular conditions of Aboriginal reserves in this period shaped the experiences and relationships of women. We show how the maternalist assumptions about the place of white women on missions created contexts in which relationships between Aboriginal women and missionary women could be characterized by affection, dependance, resistance and/or resentment. Yet the ultimate outcomes of living on missions were very different for Aboriginal women and the white women who sought to ‘mother’ them.

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

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This chapter examines the emergence in Australia of a new model of missionary work, known broadly as ‘faith mission’. The faith missions were an international phenomenon, with common patterns of gendered involvement, but their impact in Australia was distinctive. In Australia, ‘faith missions’ began work during the same period that most of the Australian states passed ‘protective’ legislation that gave settler governments far greater powers over Aboriginal people. We consider the impact of the faith missions by examining the role that white women played in the two main faith missions – the Aborigines Inland Mission and the United Aborigines Mission - in both New South Wales and Western Australia.

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Joanna Cruickshank and Patricia Grimshaw

Abstract

Chapter six returns to far North Queensland through an account of Geraldine MacKenzie, a missionary wife who worked at Aurukun Mission from the 1930s to the 1950s. MacKenzie’s experiences demonstrate how the status and roles of white women on missions changed in the first half of the twentieth century, leading up to the time when state policies of ‘assimilation’ replaced those of ‘protection’ and Aboriginal missions were largely secularised. We show how the underlying tensions within missionary agendas, as missionaries sought both to care for and to control Aboriginal people, were often on stark display in this final era of ‘protective’ policy.