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Biblical Geography

Maps in Sixteenth-Century Printed Bibles from the Low Countries

August den Hollander


Maps in Dutch printed Bibles made their debut when the Bible was first printed in large folio format in the Low Countries. The first complete Dutch Bible in the folio format that appeared on the market, by Jacob van Liesvelt in 1526, already included a map. This was a map of the Exodus, the Israelites’ journey through the desert from the land of Egypt to the promised land of Canaan. In the course of the second half of the sixteenth century, additional maps appeared in Bibles published in the Low Countries. In the sixteenth century, maps are found in both Catholic and Protestant Bibles.

Dort Outwitted by the Remonstrants

Kohlbrugge’s Evaluation of the Canons of Dort

Willem van Vlastuin


The Canons of Dort had not only defenders, moderate accepters, and offenders, but also critical accepters. One of these was Herman Friedrich Kohlbrugge (1803–1875). In the first part of this article this agreement with the doctrine of Dort is investigated. It appears that he accepted the reformed tradition, including the doctrine of predestination, and disagreed with the Arminian interpretation of grace. In the second part of this article, Kohlbrugge’s criticism of Dort is highlighted and placed in context; an analysis which leads one to a deeper understanding of the way in which Kohlbrugge accepted the theological and spiritual content of Dort. The article concludes that Kohlbrugge remained faithful to the Canons of Dort throughout his life, that he understood the Canons to be an interpretative explanation of the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism, and that he interpreted the Canons of Dort in a dynamic Christ-centred way.

Lynneth J. Miller Renberg


Drawing on Headlam’s sermons, pamphlets, and letters, this article explores his theology of the ballet, a theology made possible by his conception of sacrament and sacramental bodies. Headlam’s incarnational sacramentalism not only enabled a support of the stage as divinely created and a sacrosanct space, but created an approach to dancers, particularly women, that was distinct in its treatment of all bodies as the same in potentiality before God. His sacramentalism defied the standard conflation of dance with female transgression and male danger. Accordingly, Headlam’s vision of the earthly kingdom of God was one in which there was truly neither male nor female, and in which the stage and its ballerinas could act as models of the grace of Christ rather than as reflections of fallen humanity.