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An alphabet of colors

Valcooch’s Rules and the emergence of sense-based learning around 1600

Ann-Sophie Lehmann

Do it yourself!

Lessons in participation in a dynamic labyrinth

Annemarie Kok

‘Draw everything that exists in the world’

’t Light der Teken en Schilderkonst and the shaping of art education in early modern northern Europe

Jaya Remond

Jenny Boulboullé

Rembrandt’s nature

The ethics of teaching style in the Dutch Republic

Joost Keizer

Feisal G. Mohamed

This essay suggests “anti-liturgy” to describe Milton’s three late poems as a unified project in devotional verse, and to account for their avant-garde impulse to make the present strange. These qualities are brought into conversation with the posture on liturgy in Milton’s early poems, with Milton’s remarks on justification in De doctrina Christiana, with Catherine Pickstock’s arguments on liturgy, and with Alain Badiou’s thought on poetry and truth. For the late Milton, knowledge of futurity is a potter’s vessel dashed to pieces in an encounter with the eternal.

Weiwei Luo

Chinese imperial dynastic time represented the cyclical change of regimes with a naturalized moral order. A linear lineage time and synchronic communal time were often eclipsed by the more ritually visible and well-documented cyclical imperial time. The dawn of China’s “silver century” (1550–1650,) however, disrupted the cyclical temporality of the dynasties and revealed other time-orders that had been usually subsumed under the dynastic time. Late Ming China (fifteenth to early seventeenth century), like many parts of Europe in the early modern period, experienced commercial accumulation, competitive consumption, desire for capital, reformulation of norms and traditions, bringing China into a globalized world historical process. This change in economy brought to the fore the many layers between imperial dynastic time and that of the individual. Money also influenced existing philosophies of past and future, as well as techniques of prognostication. Manipulation of the future often took the form of calculation of good deeds inspired by accounting. In short, money transformed what we can call “the practice of future” in two ways. First, it reemphasized the importance of linear lineage time instead of dynastic time through emphasizing the longevity of descendants and fortunes in the afterlife. Second, through the discussion of capital acquisition and the popularization of accounting, it also introduced “balance” into temporality through the discourse of just and unjust accumulation, allowing a synchronized and more egalitarian communal time to disrupt lineage time.