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Author: Julia Schmidt
In The European Union and the Use of Force, Julia Schmidt examines the development and activities of the EU as an emerging international militaryactor. The author offers a comprehensive analysis of the conditions under which the EU can engage in military crisis management operations from the perspective of EU law as well as from the perspective of public international law, with a particular emphasis on the EU’s relationship with the United Nations and the EU’s relationship with its Member States in the context of the use of force.
Throughout the monograph, questions of European integration in the sphere of the common foreign and security policy as well as the EU’s place and role within the international community are put into focus.
Author: Peter Kempees
The European Convention on Human Rights is now crucial to decisions to be taken by the military and their political leaders in ‘hard power’ situations – that is, classical international and non-international armed conflict, belligerent occupation, peacekeeping and peace-enforcing and anti-terrorism and anti-piracy operations, but also hybrid warfare, cyber-attack and targeted assassination. Guidance is needed, therefore, on how Convention law relates to these decisions.

That guidance is precisely what this book aims to offer. It focuses primarily on States’ accountability under the Convention, but also shows that human rights law, used creatively, can actually help States achieve their objectives.
The Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (UNYB), founded in 1997, appears under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law. The first part, ‘The Law and Practice of the United Nations’, concentrates on the legal fundamentals of the UN, its Specialized Agencies and Programmes. The second part, ‘Legal Issues Related to the Goals of the United Nations’, analyses achievements with regard to fulfilling the main objectives of the UN. The UNYB addresses both scholars and practitioners, giving them insights into the workings, challenges and evolution of the UN.
International and European Law Requirements for Assessing Available Protection as a Criterion for Refugee and Subsidiary Status
Author: Julian Lehmann
Asylum law in the European Union is ripe with caveats that allow authorities to reject asylum applications due to ‘protection’ received in the home country or another location. But what does ‘protection’ mean in this context? And when is it strong enough to make denying an application lawful? Departing from the notion that refugee status is a “surrogate” for lacking protection at home, Julian M. Lehmann investigates the interplay of international law and European Union law on protection against harm by non-state actors, the Internal Protection Alternative concept, and asylum in third countries en route to the European Union. Lehmann demonstrates how conflating these concepts risks equating international protection with mere safety, which stands in contrast to the very purpose of refugee law.
The Yearbook of International Organizations provides the most extensive coverage of non-profit international organizations currently available. Detailed profiles of international non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations (IGO), collected and documented by the Union of International Associations, can be found here. In addition to the history, aims and acitvities of international organizations, with their events, publications and contact details, the volumes of the Yearbook include networks between associations, biographies of key people involved and extensive statistical data.

Volume 4 allows readers to locate organizations by subjects or by fields of activity and specialization, and includes an index to Volumes 1 through 4.
Author: Sylvia Maus
In United Nations Peace Operations and Human Rights: Normativity and Compliance Sylvia Maus offers a comprehensive account of the human rights obligations of United Nations peace operations with a dual focus on the applicability and the content of UN peace operations’ human rights obligations. Selected case studies show a triad of human rights gaps: a protection gap, an accountability gap and a remedy gap.

Going further than purely legal studies on the subject, Maus makes use of international relations theory and addresses considerations of reputation and legitimacy as reasons for (non-)compliance with human rights by the UN. Based on this interdisciplinary approach, she convincingly proposes ways for enhancing human rights compliance in UN peace operations.

Recently, the behaviour of emerging powers in relation to R2P has been understood as that of norm-shapers: states that seek to adjust the norm so that it conforms to their particular understandings. In this behaviour, respect for sovereignty is seen as a central concern. In the English School of International Relations, identification with the institution of sovereignty reflects an approach called pluralism. China’s behaviour is consistent with a pluralist approach to international relations. This paper aims to examine the Chinese positions regarding R2P, in order to identify pluralist traits in them. The procedure was to raise, inductively, prescriptions made by China, associating them with theoretical categories. From an analysis of the Chinese positions, it can be demonstrated that China’s behaviour reveals a paradigmatic case of a pluralist norm-shaper. Qualitative Content Analysis techniques were used as a methodological approach, while MAXQDAplus software was applied as a tool to aid in the coding of declarations.

In: Global Responsibility to Protect

This article analyses the key aspects of the brics countries’ joint position on the ‘responsibility to protect’ (R2P) concept, as well as the degree of their influence on transforming R2P into a global norm. The author’s aim was to answer the following questions: What interconnection is there between the brics and R2P discourses? How can brics stimulate an alternative interpretation of the R2P idea? In terms of cross-border partnerships, is R2P-based cooperation possible within the brics framework, and are states ready to expand it in the future? brics member states have demonstrated several common approaches to R2P, including their reliance on mechanisms strengthening the role of the state, their support for the UN position on peaceful conflict settlement, and preventive diplomacy.

In: Global Responsibility to Protect
In: Global Responsibility to Protect

This article explains why R2P failed to motivate action to protect vulnerable Syrians in the first two years of the crisis. We focus on the United States and argue that official discourse ‘localised’ the meaning R2P by grafting it on to preconceived ideas of America’s role in supporting democratic revolutions, which is how the situation was understood. American ‘exemplarism’ demanded the US support democracy by calling on Assad to go while not corrupting the ‘homegrown’ revolution through foreign intervention. The call for political and criminal accountability aligned exemplarist democracy promotion to R2P, but it did nothing to protect vulnerable populations from the conflict that ensued. This refraction of the norm complicated the United Nations sponsored peace process, which provided an alternative means of protecting the Syrian population. We address a gap in the literature by examining Western localisation and draw policy lessons, namely the importance of examining national predispositions when implementing R2P.

In: Global Responsibility to Protect