Jeffrey M. Zacks
Edited by Charles Spence, Felipe Reinoso Carvalho, Carlos Velasco and Qian Janice Wang
From a Barren Rocky Earth to Artists, Philosophers, Meditators and Psychotherapists
Michael M. DelMonte and Maeve Halpin
Edited by Danielle Schaub, Jacqueline Linder, Kori Novak, Stephanie Y. Tam and Claudio Zanini
Edited by Masamichi Sasaki
Contributors include: Jack Barbalet, John Brehm, Geoffrey Hosking, Robert Marsh, Barbara A. Misztal, Guido Möllering, Bart Nooteboom, Ken J. Rotenberg, Jiří Šafr, Masamichi Sasaki, Meg Savel, Markéta Sedláčková, Jörg Sydow, Piotr Sztompka.
Tianna Loose, Didier Acier, Jean Luc Pilet, Aurore Deledalle and Ghassan El-Baalbaki
We developed and validated a new version of our test of temporal competency. In three studies we (1) defined dimensions, created items and studied face and content validity; (2) examined dimensionality and reliability; and (3) confirmed factor structure and studied convergent validity. Focus groups were held in which we drew up temporal concepts that articulated well with clinical observations. We derived a questionnaire that was administered to French young people and this data was used to reduce the questionnaire to 15 items. Reliability and validity of the 15-item version was studied among samples: French college, French high school, and Québec college. Five dimensions were defined and retained: anticipation, full present, temporal rupture, past, future. 15 items explained 68% of variance. The model provided adequate fit in confirmatory analyses across samples. Scales converged with hypothesized dimensions of the ZTPI and scales mostly maintained acceptable reliability. Conceptual issues with ZTPI were addressed, possibly rectified and discussed in light of clinical practice. The past was defined by how much one grows from experience independently of how ‘happy’ or ‘sad’ events were. Full present and temporal rupture relate to living in the now, the first by means of flow and engagement, the second by means of addictive behaviors. Future entailed a projection unto uncertainty, whereas anticipation defined adapting behavior in order to achieve short-term goals. We found that the questionnaire had adequate psychometric proprieties among Francophone youth in Canada and in France.
Edited by Ricardo Gutiérrez Aguilar
Ari Widyanti and Dewi Regamalela
The sensitivity of mental workload measures is influenced by cultural and individual factors. One individual factor that is hypothesized to influence mental workload is time orientation. The aim of this study is to observe the influence of time orientation on temporal demand and subjective mental workload. One hundred and two participants representing three different time orientations, namely monochronic, neutral, and polychronic orientations, assessed using the Modified Polychronic Attitude Index 3 (MPAI3), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were instructed to complete a search and count task in four different conditions with varying degrees of difficulty. Mental workload was assessed using subjective (NASA-TLX) and objective (heart rate variability, or HRV) methods and analyzed for each condition. The results show that, with comparable performance and comparable HRV, monochronic participants show higher sensitivity than neutral or polychronic participants in subjective mental workload, particularly the temporal demand dimension. The implications are discussed.
If time is money and the human being an endless range of the homo œconomicus figure who maximizes profit/pleasure by minimizing losses/pain, isn’t empathy eminently anti-utilitarian? Isn’t the effort to connect with the Other, by putting oneself in the place of the Other in order to understand their perspective from their point of view, a risk of minimizing profit/pleasure by maximizing losses/pain? And isn’t that a promising prospect? Stemming from this questioning, the paper tells the story of an interdisciplinary doctoral research in development studies on the nomadic concept of empathy. Beyond inter- or trans-disciplinary, empathy becomes an undisciplined concept, which not only navigates from a discipline to the next, but also questions the ethics and epistemology of every step of the way by taking the researcher into unexpected conceptual, geographical and geopolitical territories. In this case, it moves conceptually from anti-utilitarianism to decoloniality; geographically, from Geneva to Quebec and Ontario; and geopolitically, from a Western perspective to Indigenous loci of enunciation. Through three hypostases, empathy raises some interesting ethical and methodological questions in the realm of social sciences. While trying to answer the initial question of the pertinence of an anti-utilitarian type of empathy by exploring what seemed to be from afar an original case study, the concept took the researcher to Canada, to the Iroquois nations and their notion of responsibility towards the 7th generation into the future. However, when confronted with the complex colonial dimension of the relationship with the Indigenous peoples, the concept became a heuristic tool for the researcher who had to redefine her own capacity to empathize with her interlocutors, which in turn redefined her entire project. Undisciplined, empathy finally became an ethical decolonial practice, helping the researcher build unexpected bridges between several schools of thought and perceive a reciprocal, respectful and responsible dialogue.
This chapter focuses on the relational problems in empathy at the collective and individual levels in order to explore the generally neglected subject of responsibility for empathy-related behavior. The idea is that examining the relational problems at both levels would reveal probable causes and point to possible solutions. I use a fictional short story by Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe (“Dead Men’s Path”) to draw attention to the problems of group relations. Achebe’s story deals with power relations under colonialism which, by extension, can be made to stand in for the all-too-familiar phenomenon of dominant groups trying to change, even makeover, a minority’s way of life. For obstacles in individual relations I refer to a real-life event, the trial of Khmer Rouge leader Duch for war crimes, and the role played by his victim-turned-witness Francois Bizot. Bizot’s empathic connection with his captor Duch is not singular in history, but it is extremely rare so I use it as a reverse example of the universal human problem of refusing to recognize the supposed ‘other’ in ourselves. Taken together, Achebe’s story and Bizot’s part in Duch’s trial can help us understand what being a responsible community and a responsible individual might mean in relations that involve empathy. But any deontological exploration would require a basis for determining responsibility, so I tentatively propose the basis for empathic responsibility to be the twin obligation of a) recognizing the supposed radical ‘other’ in oneself (say, the torturer living inside the victim – in potential) and b) accepting human diversity, which would necessitate negotiating differences with others as a salient mode of becoming human together.1