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Dagny Valgeirsdottir and Balder Onarheim

Despite existing enthusiasm and evidence for the effectiveness of innovative forms of educating and learning, changing practices in educational systems is challenging as centuries old practices are ingrained in political and organizational structures that naturally resist change. This resistance to change is relevant to the topic of assessment within educational settings as methods for assessing student output through exams are still pre-dominant and innovative ways of assessing are rare. This chapter will focus on assessment of creativity and how it is applicable within an educational setting with an emphasis on assessing not only the student output but the creative process as a whole. The creative process is a phenomenon that every student goes through during his or hers education, whether it is identified as such or not. Significance should be attributed to efforts made by students throughout their creative processes rather than only focusing on their final output, as a creative process does not guarantee a creative output. Students and teachers alike can learn and benefit from considering the creative process, and an assessment method appropriate to fulfil the task of assessing the process will be introduced and its applicability portrayed.

Phil Fitzsimmons and Edie Lanphar

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the findings of a longitudinal international study that sought to explore and understand the ‘habitus conditions’ that had the potential to give rise to creative experiences. The notion of habitus was used as a key axiomatic lens as, for us, it carries the sense that the patterns of thinking and predispositions to be creative arise out of deep familial or familial like patterns of ‘connectivity’. Through a series of qualitative-narrative projects young children, adolescents and adults who were either immersed in supposed creative experiences or who had demonstrated creative output were asked to reflect on the sources of these experiences. Emerging out of this ten-year project involving respondents in the United States, Australia and New Zealand, a ‘grounded theory’ of how creativity can be fostered has begun to emerge. While Cambourne’s concept of the Conditions of Learning were a constant set of emergent themes, the data facets in these ongoing investigation suggests that an existential drive lies at the core of each of our respondents and that the Conditions of Learning were the means which facilitated this drive. Indeed, other conditions for learning and creativity emerged from the data, largely related to socio-emotional awareness. This existential or spiritual awareness appears to be process of reflective inquiry, which also becomes empowered through a mentoring relationship. This web of mentoring social support provides access to the development of visualization and understanding the symbolic within their context of situation, which in turn aids in an emancipatory world view.

Reyhaneh Mozaffar

In today’s increasingly structured lifestyle, children’s play areas are greatly occupied with manufactured environments and predetermined games. On one hand, play is highly influential to human’s psychological development, however, many children are discouraged to play in natural outdoor environments, thus they are detaching from the nature. On the other hand, creativity is essential in many domains of today’s life, both in the individual level and societal level. Not only social environmental aspects influence creativity, but the physical environment plays a key role on human’s creative behaviours. This chapter aims to compare children’s creative play potentials and their engagement levels in two different outdoor play areas which are the natural environment and the built environment, to observe which one of these settings are more supportive to child’s creativity. In order to understand children’s creative behaviours, this chapter initially offers a critical review of various approaches to creativity, and underlines the most appropriate theory to be used as a scale for analysing children’s behaviours in the environment. Secondly, 15 nursery children are taken to two different outdoor settings for playing: 1- the woods, representing the natural play environment and 2- a traditional manufactured playground, representing the built play environment. Their levels of creativity are observed and analysed based on the chosen theory of creativity. The result of the critical study shows that Lubart’s theory of creativity according to his recent creativity test, Evaluation of Potential for Creativity (EPoC), gives the most inclusive explanation which covers a diverse range of aspects and can be used as a framework in order to analyse children’s creativity. The results obtained from the second part of the study show that the children were involved in higher levels of creativity and more engaged when they were in the natural environment compared to the built environment.

Christiane Kirsch, Todd Lubart and Claude Houssemand

Creativity plays an important role in education and on the job market. In this perspective, the present study addresses the personality profile of creative people in specific domains of achievement. Literature on creativity is predominantly based on the analysis of psychology students, artists and scientists. The question which emerges from the current state of the art concerns the ability to generalize these findings. Hence, the current study examines additional professional subsamples in terms of their creative personality. The sample consists of 176 participants (109 women, 66 men, MAge = 24.47, SD = 3.52, age range: 19-39 years). In the general sample, only the correlation between creativity and autonomy was significant (r = .16, p < .05). In the sample of psychologists, this correlation was stronger (r = .57, p < .01). These results suggest the importance of fostering an autonomous working style.

Zeynep Kiziltepe, Yasemin Duçe and Yelda Acarbay

This chapter presents and describes in detail a project called ‘Curious Child Time’ (CCT) designed and carried out for the last two years as part of the curriculum of a private kindergarten and primary school named ‘BÜMED Merak Eden Çocuk’ in Istanbul. The aim is to widen children's imagination, to improve their critical thinking skills, to enhance their communication and research skills, and to gain the confidence to present their work to their peers. The process is as follows: At the beginning of every school year, teachers ask their students to think about what they are curious about in their environment, and form questions in their minds. Then they tell these questions to their parents. Among these several questions, parents help their children to choose one and do research on it. Parents are informed about the Vygotskian method; therefore they know how to help their children with the research. After research is done, students do their presentations in class. Among the many questions that children form are: ‘How is fog formed?’, ‘Why are nights dark?’, and ‘Why does the Moon change shape?’ As a result of such a project; we have observed that children learn that being curious is a good thing; they learn to listen to and learn from each other; they learn how to do research; how to reach a piece of information; how to do a presentation; and they learn what each other’s interest areas are.

Esra A. Aslan

Three concepts should be distinguished when addressing creative pedagogy: ‘Creative Teaching’, ‘Education for Creativity’ and ‘Creative Learning’. This chapter is based on ‘Education for creative thinking’ and analyses and discusses (a) the constituents of the education design to be provided and (b) main codes that should be addressed within the scope of such constituents based on a literature review. The student, educator, content and context are addressed as the main constituents. The category ‘student’ explains motivation, age, mental capacity, creative thinking style, creative learning and intuition. The category ‘educator’ covers the following subcategories: creative product, assessment criteria, thinking styles of the educator and the student, and measurement of creative thinking. The category ‘content’ includes fields of different themes, integration between themes and transformation of information. The categories of creative learning, domain and culture are addressed and explained under the category ‘context’. The second focus point is the important codes which should be addressed when creating a new educational model among the constituents of the education for creative thinking. The study interpreted how and why the main codes of encouragement, motivation, uncertainty, independence, thinking style, disorder and focus are to be addressed in the new educational model.

Sedef Süner and Çiğdem Erbuğ

In user research, empathy is a challenging yet vital element to better understand user needs and expectations. This issue is more critical in design research with children. Designers have a natural tendency to think as adults, and thinking within the framework of children’s mental models become forefront as a compelling issue. Innovation requires experiential and generative research methods in order to reveal tacit user knowledge instead of predicating on assumptions about the user. The aim of this chapter is to explore the potential of familiar tools and techniques to elicit experiences and ideas of young children to inform design process. A co-design project of a children’s slide was conducted in individual sessions with 20 preschool children using drawing, clay modelling and drama as creative techniques to convey ideas. Results show that each and mixture of the techniques empowers children to communicate ideas about various dimensions of product attributes and experience such as form, size, emotion, and safety.

Eda Heinla

The aim of this study was to examine the correlates in Estonia university student creative thinking, creative self-efficacy and self-esteem. The study was conducted with 109 Estonian Tallinn University students, mean age 24, 9 year, female 83%. Creative thinking was measured by ‘TTCT –Figural Test’; general creative self-efficacy was measured by Beghetto questionnaire and creative self-efficacy at university (questionnaire was developed by the author); self-esteem was measured by the Rosenberg Scale (adopted to the Estonian language by Pullmann and Allik). Results of this study indicate that student’s self-esteem was, compared to creative-self-efficacy, significantly stronger associated with creative thinking. Student’s general creative self-efficacy showed an association with creative thinking fluency (r= .21, p<0.05) and flexibility (r= .19, p<0.05), and only one statement from self-efficacy at university showed an association with creative thinking fluency (r= .21, p<0.05). Student’s self-esteem showed a relatively association with all creative thinking components. Students with higher and lower self-efficacy at university did not differ by their creative thinking, student’s with higher and lower general creative self-efficacy differed in the creative thinking fluency and originality (p<0.05) and students with high and low self-esteem differed significantly stronger (p<0.001) in all creative thinking components.

Kerry Bystrom and Florian Becker

Despite an increasing interest in interdisciplinary human rights studies across a range of fields and geographic locations, human rights still tends to be thought of primarily as a concern of law and policy. To work against such narrow conceptions of human rights and to underscore the importance of the humanities in a critical field, as well as more broadly in a STEM-dominated funding environment, this chapter poses the following question: what are the benefits of teaching human rights from a humanities-based interdisciplinary perspective? Building on contemporary pedagogical theories by Richard Rorty and Gayatri Spivak as well as on our own practical experiences teaching human rights in the United States, South Africa and Germany, we argue that broadening the scope of human rights studies to include fields like literature, philosophy, performance and visual culture is key to helping students understand the development of human rights as an international legal regime and as a cultural discourse; and to helping them engage critically and effectively with contemporary human rights movements and humanitarian campaigns. Further, and asking ‘what can human rights offer to the humanities?’, we argue that highlighting the importance of pedagogy in public dialogue may be an effective way to demonstrate the value of the humanities.