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Lee Mordechai

Abstract

Sixth century Antioch is perhaps the best example of state-city resilience in Late Antiquity. Over the century, the city suffered multiple natural disasters, civil strife and external conflict. Scholars have generally accepted that the city declined as a result. This study integrates historical, archaeological and scientific data to illuminate the city’s fate. It concludes that Antioch demonstrated remarkable resilience at the city level throughout the 6th c. The most important factor was the continuous support the city received from the central government.

Volume-editor Adam Izdebski and Michael Mulryan

Volume-editor Adam Izdebski and Michael Mulryan

Volume-editor Adam Izdebski and Michael Mulryan

Inga Labuhn, Martin Finné, Adam Izdebski, Neil Roberts and Jessie Woodbridge

Abstract

Many events and developments in human history have been suspected to be, at least partly, influenced by climate and environmental changes. In order to investigate climate impacts on societies, reliable palaeoclimatic data of adequate dating precision, resolution, spatial representativeness, and so on, are needed. This paper presents a survey and analysis of published palaeoclimatic data of the Mediterranean for the 1st millennium AD, and identifies regional patterns of hydro-climate variability, useful for comparison with archaeological/historical studies. It also provides general guidelines to palaeoclimatic data for archaeologists/historians interested in climatic change. We conclude with a discussion of how the emerging patterns of regional climate histories may have had an impact on Mediterranean societies in Late Antiquity.

Volume-editor Adam Izdebski and Michael Mulryan

Volume-editor Adam Izdebski and Michael Mulryan

Mario Morellón, Gaia Sinopoli, Adam Izdebski, Laura Sadori, Flavio Anselmetti, Richard Hodges, Eleonora Regattieri, Bernd Wagner, Brunhilda Brushulli and Daniel Ariztegui

Abstract

A multiproxy analysis (sedimentology, geochemistry and pollen) of sediments recovered in the Butrint lagoon (Albania) allows us to reconstruct the environmental changes that occurred in the area during the 1st millennium AD. In this paper, we compare these analytical results with the evidence provided by archaeological investigations carried out at the site of the Roman city of Butrint (surrounded by these lagoon waters) and in the city’s hinterlands. From this, we can say that different periods of farming and siltation (AD 400–600 and 700–900) were accompanied by increased run-off and wetter conditions in the region. This coincided with the territorial and economic expansion of the Byzantine empire, suggesting the key role of trade in the profound land use changes experienced in Butrint.