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Aiyub Palmer

In Sainthood and Authority in Early Islam Aiyub Palmer recasts wilāya in terms of Islamic authority and traces its development in both political and religious spheres up through the 3rd and 4th Islamic centuries. This book pivots around the ideas of al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī, the first Muslim theologian and mystic to write on the topic of wilāya.

By looking at its structural roots in Arab and Islamic social organization, Aiyub Palmer has reframed the discussion about sainthood in early Islam to show how it relates more broadly to other forms of authority in Islam. This book not only looks anew at the influential ideas of al-Tirmidhī but also challenges current modes of thought around the nature of authority in Islamicate societies.

Islam in der Moderne, Moderne im Islam

Eine Festschrift für Reinhard Schulze zum 65. Geburtstag

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Edited by Florian Zemmin, Johannes Stephan and Monica Corrado

This Festschrift brings together a range of scholars who congratulate Reinhard Schulze on the occasion of his 65th birthday, by shedding light and reflecting on the relation between Islam and modernity. Scholars from the fields of Islamic studies, religious studies, sociology and Arabic literature connect in various ways to Reinhard Schulze’s work to constructively criticize a Eurocentric understanding of modernity. The more specific aspects dealt with under the overarching topic of Islam and modernity make for the four thematic sections of this volume: the study of religion, Islam, and Islamic studies; Islamic knowledge cultures and normativity; language and literature as media of modernity; Islam and Islamic studies in the public sphere.

Die Beitragenden zu dieser Festschrift gratulieren Reinhard Schulze zu seinem 65. Geburtstag, indem sie mit der Beziehung zwischen Islam und Moderne ein Lebensthema des Jubilars beleuchten. Vertretende der Islamwissenschaft, Religionswissenschaft, Soziologie und der arabischen Literaturwissenschaft beziehen sich in verschiedener Hinsicht auf Reinhard Schulzes Werk, um ein eurozentrisches Verständnis von Moderne konstruktiv zu kritisieren. Die unter dem Oberthema Islam und Moderne näher behandelten Aspekte sind aus den vier thematischen Sektionen des Bandes ersichtlich: Islam(wissenschaft), Religion und der Eigensinn der Moderne; islamische Wissenskulturen und Normativität; Sprache und Literatur als Medien der Moderne; Islam(wissenschaft) in der Öffentlichkeit.

Contributors are: Mona Abaza, Hüseyin Ağuiçenoğlu, Aziz al-Azmeh, Katajun Amirpur, Monica Corrado, Ahmad Dallal, Peter Dové, Susanne Enderwitz, Anne Grüne, Stephan Guth, Kai Hafez, Albrecht Hofheinz, Michael Kemper, Hans G. Kippenberg, Karénina Kollmar-Paulenz, Felix Konrad, Gudrun Krämer, Volkhard Krech, Anke von Kügelgen, Jamal Malik, Jürgen Paul, Frank Peter, Stefan Reichmuth, Armando Salvatore, Johannes Stephan, Anna Trechsel, Yves Wegelin, Florian Zemmin.

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Jürgen Paul

Zusammenfassung

Five years after founding the journal Der Islam, Carl Heinrich Becker published his study “Steuerpacht und Lehnswesen eine historische Studie über die Entstehung des islamischen Lehnswesens” (1914) in it. This article had a surprisingly deep impact. It is not only a milestone in the assessment of the “oriental” iqṭāʿ as very different from the European “fief”, but it also served some authors as basis for far-reaching statements: Max Weber and Marc Bloch referred to it in their work. The article was “state of the art” until 1953 when Claude Cahen opened up new axes for research on the iqṭāʿ in a ground-breaking study.

The present article outlines Becker’s perspective, starting with his statement that the iqṭāʿ falls short from being a fief first of all because “the Orient” does not know the homagium, the voluntary submission of a nobleman under a prince. The article identifies some of the sources for this statement, shows its implications and traces its impact, among others on Weber and Bloch. The article also names sources that must lead to a re-assessment of this statement: contrary to Becker’s claim, in Seljuq Iran, there were social relationships and ceremonies that can usefully be compared to the Latin homagium. At the end, the article contextualises the iqṭāʿ as one form of “benefit”, one duty that the lord has in the mutually engaging relationship of “service” (khidma).

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Felix Konrad

Zusammenfassung

A recurring topic of Ottoman advice literature is the categorisation of society into distinct groups. This representation of social order is contrasted with perceived ‘illegitimate’ social mobility and behaviour. Arising from processes of identification, which associate social groups with specific functions, characteristics, and patterns of behaviour, social categorisations are part and parcel of a discourse meant to preserve and stabilise social order. As such, they were embedded in a culture of knowledge shaped by binary oppositions such as rulers and subjects, order and disorder. This contribution examines three pieces of early-eighteenth-century advice literature by Defterdār Ṣarı Meḥmed, Naḥīfī Süleymān, and İbrāhīm Müteferriḳa, firstly, by analysing how the authors produced social categories, either positively, by specifying ‘appropriate’ practices, or negatively, by condemning certain behaviour. Secondly, I will discuss their use of Islamic normativity when defining legitimate behaviour. Hereby, the main focus lies on the image of high-ranking officials as the intended audience of the texts. I will show that social classifications and definitions of legitimate behaviour not only helped the authors to interpret socio-political change, but also contributed to a discursive construction of order.

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Florian Zemmin, Johannes Stephan and Monica Corrado

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Frank Peter

Zusammenfassung

This contribution addresses the extent to which the cultural – mainly Christian-Protestant – underlay to the concept of religion which became hegemonic in the 19th century has made its way into European law, shaping how religious freedom rights of Muslims are defined today.

I begin by describing studies that examine the nexus between freedom of religion and the normativity of the concept of religion. These studies focus on the way ‘religion’ is closely associated with ‘faith’ or ‘belief’ and the concomitant location of religion in the innermost being. They argue that this association is mirrored in aspects of European legislation, e.g. in the European Convention on Human Rights which distinguishes between an unconditional right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, on the one hand, and, on the other, a restrictable right to manifest one’s religion or beliefs. This limited protection granted to the manifestation of belief correlates with the secondary importance assigned to external practice in this normative concept of religion.

Here I reconstruct the concept of religion as applied by the European Court of Justice (and, previously, by the European Commission) and examine whether this concept is normatively European in the above sense. I show that the Court’s concept of religion is relatively unstable and fragmentary and does not a priori exclude the Islamic practices reviewed by the Court or normatively downgrade their protection.

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Karénina Kollmar-Paulenz

Zusammenfassung

In his seminal study “Islamwissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft” from 2010 Reinhard Schulze has probed into the question why in German universities “Islam was excluded from the original canon of the Study of Religion” and assigned its own academic discipline. Schulze maintains that as a result of this exclusion Islam lost its relevance for the development of a theory of religion in the Study of Religion. As Buddhism is also assigned its own discipline as “Buddhist Studies,” this paper aims to include Buddhism in the debate. Specifically, it discusses the role Islam and Buddhism play in regard to theory building in the works of Cornelis Petrus Tiele. To this aim, the paper also considers later developments and critically examines the theoretical distinction between History of Religions (“Religionsgeschichte”) and Theory of Religion (“Systematische Religionswissenschaft”) in German Religionswissenschaft.

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Albrecht Hofheinz

Abstract

This chapter acknowledges the pioneering work of Reinhard Schulze in suggesting that the eighteenth century in the Islamic world may have witnessed significant-enough epistemological and social change to justify regarding it as a turning point. It argues that extant studies on Early Modernity in Islamdom should be supplemented by a broader look at dynamics on the ‘periphery’ of the established urban centres of Islamic learning and culture. In Sub-Saharan Africa, an unprecedented explosion of writing activity can be dated to the last quarter of the eighteenth century. It was largely due to the activities of movements of ‘inner mission’ that aimed at spreading Islamic knowledge and responsible Islamic practice beyond the traditional confines of the urban-based scholar-jurists. The carriers of these movements were to a large part standing in the tradition of the Sufi orders. Their audience was mainly people at the boundaries of the traditional urban sphere. Both pietist preaching and puritan politics helped to break the hegemony of scholastic scholars over defining “Islam” and dilute the concomitant divide between the elite (al-khāṣṣa) and the commoners (al-ʿāmma). This development may be seen as an important factor in the rise of the individual in the Islamic world.

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Hans G. Kippenberg

Zusammenfassung

While there is no shortage of studies on Islamic terrorism, only few studies address the ending of terrorist groups. After elucidating the concept of terrorism and its evolvement, this article uses such studies – on religious as well as other terrorist groups – to show that only in few cases a military war caused their ending. Moreover, it argues that such groups often renounced violence due to changes in course of their political participation. To explain such changes, I introduce the Thomas theorem, which, from a perspective of sociological action theory, shows that a value does not – as Parsons has it – determine the preference for all situations, but that rather the definition of a certain situation determines the choice of an appropriate value. A conflict of Muslims with other groups can thus be defined both in a militant and quietist manner. This I illustrate with five cases of jihadi groups that renounced violence, even though their experience of injustice remained the same. The assumption that jihad as a violent maxim is structuring the acts of Muslims in all situations of conflict, is biased and partial. It supposes that they are incapable of settling a peace contract and it contributes to a non-ending war on terror. In fact, Muslims can choose enduring injustice instead of jihad if this is in the interest of the common weal of their community.