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Author: Meike Christian
This study challenges the common classification of 1/4QInstruction and the Treatise of the Two Spirits (1QS III,13–IV,26) as “pre-sectarian”. The analysis refrains from the distinction between “sectarian-” and “non-sectarian-texts” and supplies detailed comparisons as well as a redaction-critical investigation without any presuppositions about the historical setting of 1/4QInstruction and the Treatise. This way it re-evaluates the formation of the two compositions and brings to light connections and developments that have been concealed so far.

Die vorliegende Studie stellt die verbreitete Klassifizierung von 1/4QInstruction und der Zwei-Geister-Lehre als „pre-sectarian-texts“ in Frage. Anstatt von übergeordneten Kategorien auszugehen, vermeidet diese Untersuchung historische Vorannahmen und richtet den Blick aufs Detail, indem sie anhand von Textvergleichen sowie einer redaktionskritischen Analyse eine Neueinordnung der beiden Werke vornimmt. Auf diese Weise werden bisher verborgende gedankliche Entwicklungen und literarische Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse aufgedeckt, sodass die beiden Werke in einem neuen Licht erscheinen.
Author: Jos Monballyu

Summary

The French revolutionary legislature imposed capital punishments for a number of serious crimes such as gang robbery, murder, poisoning, parental murder, infanticide, homicide and theft, arson and coin counterfeiting. These capital punishments reached their peak in the years 1798-1803, being the last two years of the Directoire and the first years under Napoleon. A total of 231 death sentences were handed down in the Scheldt Department and the Province of East Flanders, 70 in default and 161 contradictory, of which 129 were executed. Most death sentences were imposed for a property crime. Crimes against individuals then came only second.

In: Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'histoire du droit / The Legal History Review
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

This chapter focuses on the literary development of the Treatise and its relation to the Community Rule.

The first subsection begins with a short introduction about the structure of the Community Rule, the different versions in the manuscripts from cave 1 and 4 and the hypotheses about the literary growth of the composition. Then, the parallels between the Treatise and its context are analyzed. After an overview of earlier studies on this subject, a close reading of the significant parallels follows.

Apart from an accumulation of parallels between the Treatise and 1QS XI,2–22, there are many more connections to other parts of the Community Rule. It is asked where the corresponding passages appear within the literary growth of the whole Community Rule and whether they are older or younger than the Treatise. This analysis shows that the Treatise can be understood best as a late addition and a Fortschreibung within the Community Rule.

The second subsection deals with the development of the Treatise itself. First, the text of the Treatise in 1Qs is analyzed in order to find sighs of a literary growth and afterwards the other manuscripts of the Community Rule are considered to verify the reconstruction.

Several significant differences regarding language and content can be found between 1QS III,18–IV,14 vis-à-vis III,15–18 + IV,15–26 and within these two groups 1QS IV,2–14 differs from III,18–IV,1 and 1QS IV,23b–26 takes a special position. Moreover, an inconsistency in 1QS IV,15 hints to a reworking of the precedent passage. Based on these observations and the comparison with the whole Community Rule, the literary development of the Treatise is reconstructed. It is demonstrated that the literary core can be found in 1QS III,13–15a*+III,15b–18a+IV,15–23a and that it has been extended in three major steps: the first addition comprises 1QS III,14b–15a and IV,2–14, the second addition 1QS III,13.18b–25a and IV,23b and the last one 1QS III,25b–IV,1 and IV,23c–26. 1Q29a 13–17 and 4QpapSa A indicate that different versions of the Treatise were in circulation and 4QpapSc probably comprises a shorter version of the Treatise, which could be identical with the literary core plus the first addition.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

This chapter introduces the Treatise of the Two Spirits and presents the text of the Treatise based on 1QS III,13–IV,26 in Hebrew with a German translation.

The brief introduction gives information about the manuscripts, title, history of edition and characteristics of the Treatise. The transcriptions of 1QS III,13–IV,26 including the parallel versions from cave 4 are again based on the edition of Elisha Qimron with minor changes.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

The introduction describes the problem and approach of this study and provides a problem-oriented literature review, which is focused on the sociological and tradition-historical placement of Instruction and the Treatise of the Two Spirits.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

The last chapter draws the overall conclusions from this monograph and describes its implications for future studies.

Some of the main results can be summarized as follows: Instruction and the Treatise of the Two Spirits cannot be classified as “pre-sectarian-texts”, which implies that all former theories about their historical background that build upon this classification are obsolete. Both texts are dependent on the older Community Songs from the Hodayot. Instruction has been composed before the version of Community Rule represented by 1QS was finished and the Treatise can be identified as the last major Fortschreibung of the Community Rule. Therefore, Instruction and the Treatise were probably written at the end of the second century or at the beginning of the first century BCE.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

Based on the results from the previous chapter, Instruction and the Treatise of the Two Spirits are compared with the Community Hymns and the passage 1QS XI,2–22 from the hymnic ending of the Community Rule. The first topic that is of special relevance is the notion of secret knowledge. This subject plays a key role in Instruction, which is why this composition is analyzed separately for a start and afterwards compared with the other texts.

How are the addressees of Instruction supposed to get insight and how to understand the central term ‮רז נהיה‬‎? Regarding the other texts, the focus lies on the question how they understand secret knowledge. An important aspect is also the notion of different spirits that influence the human insight, which both the Community Hymns and the Treatise of the Two Spirits describe. As a result, the systematic approach in Instruction can be understood best as an elaboration of different aspects from the Community Hymns, whereas 1QS XI,2–22 takes up the central term ‮רז נהיה‬‎ from Instruction and connects it with the concept of the Community Hymns. The Treatise postpones the comprehensive instruction of the chosen ones into the eschatological future and reacts to the fact that the human cannot understand all of God’s creation.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

This chapter gives a general introduction to 1/4QInstruction and presents the texts of the main fragments in Hebrew with a German translation.

The brief introduction provides information about the manuscripts, title, history of edition, genre and characteristics, former material reconstructions of the manuscripts and the structure of the whole composition. The transcriptions of the main fragments are based on the edition of Elisha Qimron with minor changes.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)
Author: Meike Christian

Zusammenfassung

This chapter sums up the results from the comparison regarding the literary relationship of Instruction, the Treatise of the Two Spirits, the Community Hymns from the Hodayot and the passage 1QS XI,2–22 from the hymnic ending of the Community Rule.

In summary, the new relative chronology begins with the Community Hymns, which Instruction will take up at a later point. The hymnic ending of the Community Rule in 1QS XI,2–22 combines elements from both compositions and the Treatise can be identified as the youngest part, which extends several ideas from the other texts.

In: Zu Entstehung und Theologie von 1/4QInstruction und der ‚Zwei-Geister-Lehre‘ (1QS III,13–IV,26)