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Аннотация

В графике начала 20 века значительное место занимают карикатура, сатирический рисунок, шарж. Художники не только публиковали их на страницах периодических изданий, но и рисовали их для себя, для узкого круга своих знакомых, а порой и опубликованный рисунок имел дополнительный контекст, понятный посвященным. Настоящие заметки включают несколько сюжетов, каждый из которых связан с творчеством Сергея Судейкина.

In: Experiment

Abstract

This article examines the housing problem of the Soviet civilians who returned from the evacuation to Moscow during the World War II and immediately after it. The reevacuation began in 1942 after the successful counteroffensive of the Red Army near Moscow. It was a priority for the Soviet government to restore the economy of the capital and return workers to the city. However, thousands of square meters of housing in Moscow rendered uninhabitable during the war for different reasons. Based mainly on the archival sources, especially on court materials, this paper examines the magnitude of the housing problem in Moscow and highlights its legal and social aspects. I argue that the authorities at first protected the apartments of evacuees, but then they began to cancel the rights of people to housing and move new residents into the empty apartments. This situation forced reevacuees to start judicial proceedings, which often ended not in their favor.

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review

Abstract

After the liberation of the western republics of the Soviet Union from the German occupation, armed resistance to Soviet rule started, it forced the state to use significant resources to stabilize the situation. In the article, based on the reporting and management documentation of the NKVD bodies and party control documents, an attempt is made to explore the range of tasks, management methods, and methods of using fighter battalions, which were created in Western Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states immediately after the liberation of these territories. Particular emphasis is placed on the institutional and social history of these units, the personnel composition is analyzed, and the dynamics of its change during the study period is traced. Similar features and differences are revealed in the methods of formation and use of battalions operating in different republics. An attempt is being made to understand the motivation of the servicemen joining the ranks of the battalions, and determine what role personal interest played in their recruitment or acts of violence by the rebels. The study of the identified issues will allow not only to analyze a wide range of issues related to the activities of the NKVD fighter battalions at the final stage of the war, but also to supplement the understanding of how the Soviet state managed to win the civil war in the western borderlands.

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review
Author:

Abstract

In the first half of the 1930s in the Vyatka region about 60 Old Believers-Wanderers, mostly women, committed suicide, no longer wanting to live in a world overrun by the Antichrist. The initiator of the wave of voluntary deaths was the local preacher, Khristofor Ivanovich. It is easy to write off these episodes as an actualization of traditional Old Believers’ religiously-motivated suicides or as a reaction to the excesses of Stalinist religious policies. However, as will be shown in the article, the Vyatka Wanderers were neither persistent escapist radicals nor uncompromising dissidents in their dealings with the Soviet authorities. My hypothesis is that this grim practice became possible not because the Wanderers were consistent underground millenarians, but because, squeezed into the catacombs by Stalin’s social and religious policies, they found themselves unable to maintain this unprecedented (for them) regime of existence.

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review
Author:

Abstract

This article explores a repertoire of interactions between Alexei Sidortsev, a tenacious Soviet worker defending his rights, and the Soviet legal bureaucracy up to the Supreme Court. Using the Sidortsev case as an example, I plan to demonstrate the judicial logic of interpreting the parties’ various arguments and evidence. This case allows us to describe and analyze the range of rights and legal opportunities available to the Soviet worker under interwar law. I also focus on the rhetorical transformations of Sidortsev’s arguments, changing from ideological to pragmatically bureaucratic. Although Sidortsev was skilled in ideologized Soviet language, it was the material argument that was decisive in courts interpretations of the facts of the case. On this basis, I argue that material truth in the socialist legal consciousness is not determined by the discursive political language of denunciation that we have come to regard as defining in the Soviet system.

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review

Abstract

In 1939–1941, the Soviet policy in the new western borderlands was based on the need to transform quickly the annexed territories into a safe and invulnerable border. Thus, having expanded its territories to the west in 1939–1940, the Soviet government was in no hurry to eliminate the old border outposts. On the contrary, the previously existing Polish-Soviet border was preserved in the form of so-called “barrier zone” (« зона заграждения »), and special permits were still required to cross it. At the same time, the construction of new western borders was proceeding at an accelerated pace, and in parallel with this, a massive “purge” of the population of the new regions was carried out. Thus, in the pre-war years, the annexed territories were assigned the role of a kind of broad “buffer zone” that was supposed to protect the USSR from the west with two border lines—the new German-Soviet border (external) and the preserved former Polish-Soviet border (internal).

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review